Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by elevated androgen production and subclinical changes in cardiovascular and metabolic risk markers. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin appear to increase specifically in PCOS compared with fertile women. PCOS also confers an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease in later life. Novel biomarkers such as serum’s cholesterol efflux capacity and blood-derived macrophage activation profile may assist in more accurately defining the cardiometabolic risk profile in these women. Aldosterone antagonists, androgen receptor antagonists, 5α-reductase inhibitors, and synthetic progestogens are used to reduce hyperandrogenism. Because increased insulin secretion enhances ovarian androgen production, short-term treatment with metformin and other hypoglycemic agents results in significant weight loss, favorable metabolic changes, and testosterone reduction. The naturally occurring inositols display insulin-sensitizing effects and may be also used in this context because of their safety profile. Combined oral contraceptives represent the drug of choice for correction of androgen-related symptoms. Overall, PCOS management remains focused on specific targets including assessment and treatment of cardiometabolic risk, according to disease phenotypes. While new options are adding to established therapeutic approaches, a sometimes difficult balance between efficacy and safety of available medications has to be found in individual women.

Pharmacological approaches to controlling cardiometabolic risk in women with pcos

Cignarella A.;Dassie F.;Parolin M.;Vettor R.;Barbot M.;Scaroni C.
2020

Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by elevated androgen production and subclinical changes in cardiovascular and metabolic risk markers. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin appear to increase specifically in PCOS compared with fertile women. PCOS also confers an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease in later life. Novel biomarkers such as serum’s cholesterol efflux capacity and blood-derived macrophage activation profile may assist in more accurately defining the cardiometabolic risk profile in these women. Aldosterone antagonists, androgen receptor antagonists, 5α-reductase inhibitors, and synthetic progestogens are used to reduce hyperandrogenism. Because increased insulin secretion enhances ovarian androgen production, short-term treatment with metformin and other hypoglycemic agents results in significant weight loss, favorable metabolic changes, and testosterone reduction. The naturally occurring inositols display insulin-sensitizing effects and may be also used in this context because of their safety profile. Combined oral contraceptives represent the drug of choice for correction of androgen-related symptoms. Overall, PCOS management remains focused on specific targets including assessment and treatment of cardiometabolic risk, according to disease phenotypes. While new options are adding to established therapeutic approaches, a sometimes difficult balance between efficacy and safety of available medications has to be found in individual women.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3366890
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