In the last 40 years, male reproductive health-which is very sensitive to both environmental exposure and metabolic status-has deteriorated and the poor sperm quality observed has been suggested to affect offspring development and its health in adult life. In this scenario, evidence now suggests that epigenetics shapes endocrine functions, linking genetics and environment. During fertilization, spermatozoa share with the oocyte their epigenome, along with their haploid genome, in order to orchestrate embryo development. The epigenetic signature of spermatozoa is the result of a dynamic modulation of the epigenetic marks occurring, firstly, in the testis-during germ cell progression-then, along the epididymis, where spermatozoa still receive molecules, conveyed by epididymosomes. Paternal lifestyle, including nutrition and exposure to hazardous substances, alters the phenotype of the next generations, through the remodeling of a sperm epigenetic blueprint that dynamically reacts to a wide range of environmental and lifestyle stressors. With that in mind, this review will summarize and discuss insights into germline epigenetic plasticity caused by environmental stimuli and diet and how spermatozoa may be carriers of induced epimutations across generations through a mechanism known as paternal transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.

Environmental Impact on Male (In)Fertility via Epigenetic Route

Cescon M;Chianese R
;
2020

Abstract

In the last 40 years, male reproductive health-which is very sensitive to both environmental exposure and metabolic status-has deteriorated and the poor sperm quality observed has been suggested to affect offspring development and its health in adult life. In this scenario, evidence now suggests that epigenetics shapes endocrine functions, linking genetics and environment. During fertilization, spermatozoa share with the oocyte their epigenome, along with their haploid genome, in order to orchestrate embryo development. The epigenetic signature of spermatozoa is the result of a dynamic modulation of the epigenetic marks occurring, firstly, in the testis-during germ cell progression-then, along the epididymis, where spermatozoa still receive molecules, conveyed by epididymosomes. Paternal lifestyle, including nutrition and exposure to hazardous substances, alters the phenotype of the next generations, through the remodeling of a sperm epigenetic blueprint that dynamically reacts to a wide range of environmental and lifestyle stressors. With that in mind, this review will summarize and discuss insights into germline epigenetic plasticity caused by environmental stimuli and diet and how spermatozoa may be carriers of induced epimutations across generations through a mechanism known as paternal transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3373960
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