This review aims to collect the proposed surgical techniques for treating full thickness macular hole (FTMH) refractory to pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and to analyse and compare anatomical and functional outcomes in order to evaluate their efficacy. The articles were grouped according to the surgical techniques used. Refractory FTMH closure rate and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) gain were the two analysed parameters. Thirty-six articles were selected. Ten surgical technique subgroups were defined: autologous platelet concentrate (APC); lens capsular flap transplantation (LCFT); autologous free ILM flap transplantation (free ILM flap); enlargement of ILM peeling, macular hole hydrodissection (MHH), autologous retinal graft (ARG), silicon oil (SO), human amniotic membrane (hAM), perifoveal relaxing retinotomy, arcuate temporal retinotomy. Refractory FTMH closure rate was similar among subgroups, not significant heterogeneity emerged (p = 0.176). BCVA gain showed a significant dependence on surgical technique (p < 0.0001), significant heterogeneity among subgroups emerged (p < 0.0001). Three sets of surgical technique subgroups with a homogeneous BCVA gain were defined: high BCVA gain (hAM); intermediate BCVA gain (APC, ARG, LCFT, MHH, SO); low BCVA gain (free ILM flap, enlargement of peeling, arcuate temporal retinotomy). In terms of visual recovery, the most efficient technique for treating refractory FTMH is hAM, lens capsular flap and APC that allow to obtain better functional outcomes than free ILM flap. MHH, ARG, perifoveal relaxing and arcuate temporal retinotomy require complex and unjustified surgical manoeuvres in view of the surgical alternatives with overlapping anatomical and functional results.

Refractory full thickness macular hole: current surgical management

Frisina R.;Gius I.;Tozzi L.;Midena E.
2021

Abstract

This review aims to collect the proposed surgical techniques for treating full thickness macular hole (FTMH) refractory to pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and to analyse and compare anatomical and functional outcomes in order to evaluate their efficacy. The articles were grouped according to the surgical techniques used. Refractory FTMH closure rate and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) gain were the two analysed parameters. Thirty-six articles were selected. Ten surgical technique subgroups were defined: autologous platelet concentrate (APC); lens capsular flap transplantation (LCFT); autologous free ILM flap transplantation (free ILM flap); enlargement of ILM peeling, macular hole hydrodissection (MHH), autologous retinal graft (ARG), silicon oil (SO), human amniotic membrane (hAM), perifoveal relaxing retinotomy, arcuate temporal retinotomy. Refractory FTMH closure rate was similar among subgroups, not significant heterogeneity emerged (p = 0.176). BCVA gain showed a significant dependence on surgical technique (p < 0.0001), significant heterogeneity among subgroups emerged (p < 0.0001). Three sets of surgical technique subgroups with a homogeneous BCVA gain were defined: high BCVA gain (hAM); intermediate BCVA gain (APC, ARG, LCFT, MHH, SO); low BCVA gain (free ILM flap, enlargement of peeling, arcuate temporal retinotomy). In terms of visual recovery, the most efficient technique for treating refractory FTMH is hAM, lens capsular flap and APC that allow to obtain better functional outcomes than free ILM flap. MHH, ARG, perifoveal relaxing and arcuate temporal retinotomy require complex and unjustified surgical manoeuvres in view of the surgical alternatives with overlapping anatomical and functional results.
2021
EYE
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3379229
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