Background: Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is very resistant and highly contagious and infects domestic cats and other felids. FPV is particularly widespread among sheltered cats, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality, causing severe gastroenteritis characterized by anorexia, lethargy, fever, dehydration, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and vomiting. There is currently no data on the ultrasonographic features of cats affected with FPV. This case series describes abdominal ultrasonographic findings in shelter cats with naturally-occurring FPV, and assesses whether are associated with clinical and laboratory findings. Cats affected by FPV were enrolled in the study if an abdominal ultrasound was performed within 12 hours of diagnosis. Clinical, laboratory and survival data were collected from medical records. Ultrasonographic examinations were reviewed for gastrointestinal abnormalities and their associations with the above data were explored. Results: Twenty-one cats were included. Nine cats (42.9%) died and 12 (57.1%) recovered. Based on ultrasonography, the duodenum and jejunum showed thinning of the mucosal layer in 70.6% and 66.6% of cats, thickening of the muscular layer in 52.9% and 57.1% of cats, and hyperechogenicity of the mucosa in 41.2% and 33.3%. Jejunal hyperechoic mucosal band paralleling the submucosa and irregular luminal surface were both observed in 33.3% of the cats. Survival was positively associated with increased jejunal mucosal echogenicity (P = 0.003) and hyperechoic mucosal band (P = 0.003). Peritoneal free fluid was positively associated with vomiting (P = 0.002). Conclusions: This study provides ultrasonographic features of naturally-occurring FPV in cats, which, as expected, are compatible with gastroenteropathy. The most frequent findings were diffuse small intestine mucosal layer thinning, muscular layer thickening and mucosal hyperechogenicity, jejunal hyperechoic mucosal band and irregular luminal surface. Ultrasonographic features may be useful to complete the clinical picture and assess the severity of the gastroenteropathy in FPV cats. Prospective studies are needed to confirm ultrasonographic prognostic factors.

Gastrointestinal ultrasonographic findings in cats with Feline panleukopenia: a case series

Ciccarelli S.;Contiero B.;Coppola L. M.;Zini E.
2021

Abstract

Background: Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is very resistant and highly contagious and infects domestic cats and other felids. FPV is particularly widespread among sheltered cats, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality, causing severe gastroenteritis characterized by anorexia, lethargy, fever, dehydration, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and vomiting. There is currently no data on the ultrasonographic features of cats affected with FPV. This case series describes abdominal ultrasonographic findings in shelter cats with naturally-occurring FPV, and assesses whether are associated with clinical and laboratory findings. Cats affected by FPV were enrolled in the study if an abdominal ultrasound was performed within 12 hours of diagnosis. Clinical, laboratory and survival data were collected from medical records. Ultrasonographic examinations were reviewed for gastrointestinal abnormalities and their associations with the above data were explored. Results: Twenty-one cats were included. Nine cats (42.9%) died and 12 (57.1%) recovered. Based on ultrasonography, the duodenum and jejunum showed thinning of the mucosal layer in 70.6% and 66.6% of cats, thickening of the muscular layer in 52.9% and 57.1% of cats, and hyperechogenicity of the mucosa in 41.2% and 33.3%. Jejunal hyperechoic mucosal band paralleling the submucosa and irregular luminal surface were both observed in 33.3% of the cats. Survival was positively associated with increased jejunal mucosal echogenicity (P = 0.003) and hyperechoic mucosal band (P = 0.003). Peritoneal free fluid was positively associated with vomiting (P = 0.002). Conclusions: This study provides ultrasonographic features of naturally-occurring FPV in cats, which, as expected, are compatible with gastroenteropathy. The most frequent findings were diffuse small intestine mucosal layer thinning, muscular layer thickening and mucosal hyperechogenicity, jejunal hyperechoic mucosal band and irregular luminal surface. Ultrasonographic features may be useful to complete the clinical picture and assess the severity of the gastroenteropathy in FPV cats. Prospective studies are needed to confirm ultrasonographic prognostic factors.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3392038
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