Heart rhythm disturbances caused by different etiologies may affect pediatric and adult patients with life-threatening consequences. When pharmacological therapy is ineffective in treating the disturbances, the implantation of electronic devices to control and/or restore normal heart pacing is a unique clinical management option. Although these artificial devices are life-saving, they display many limitations; not least, they do not have any capability to adapt to somatic growth or respond to neuroautonomic physiological changes. A biological pacemaker could offer a new clinical solution for restoring heart rhythms in the conditions of disorder in the cardiac conduction system. Several experimental approaches, such as cell-based, gene-based approaches, and the combination of both, for the generation of biological pacemakers are currently established and widely studied. Pacemaker bioengineering is also emerging as a technology to regenerate nodal tissues. This review analyzes and summarizes the strategies applied so far for the development of biological pacemakers, and discusses current translational challenges toward the first-in-human clinical application.

Bioengineering the Cardiac Conduction System: Advances in Cellular, Gene, and Tissue Engineering for Heart Rhythm Regeneration

Naumova N.;Iop L.
2021

Abstract

Heart rhythm disturbances caused by different etiologies may affect pediatric and adult patients with life-threatening consequences. When pharmacological therapy is ineffective in treating the disturbances, the implantation of electronic devices to control and/or restore normal heart pacing is a unique clinical management option. Although these artificial devices are life-saving, they display many limitations; not least, they do not have any capability to adapt to somatic growth or respond to neuroautonomic physiological changes. A biological pacemaker could offer a new clinical solution for restoring heart rhythms in the conditions of disorder in the cardiac conduction system. Several experimental approaches, such as cell-based, gene-based approaches, and the combination of both, for the generation of biological pacemakers are currently established and widely studied. Pacemaker bioengineering is also emerging as a technology to regenerate nodal tissues. This review analyzes and summarizes the strategies applied so far for the development of biological pacemakers, and discusses current translational challenges toward the first-in-human clinical application.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3398318
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