An innovative approach for real-time road safety analysis is presented in this work. Unlike traditional real-time crash prediction models (RTCPMs), in which crash data are used in the training phase, a real-time conflict prediction model (RTConfPM) is proposed. This model can be trained using surrogate measures of safety, and can therefore be applied even in situations in which highly spatial/temporal-accurate crash data are unavailable or unreliable. The application of an RTConfPM consists of using a set of input variables recorded during a given time interval, to predict whether there will be an increased risk of unsafe situations in the following interval. This paper presents an RTConfPM to predict rear-end crashes, using time-to-collision values recorded with radar sensors on multiple motorway cross-sections to define unsafe situations, and traffic conditions recorded on the same sections as input to the model. The RTConfPM is compared to a traditional RTCPM, trained with a dataset of crashes located on the same motorway, and using the same traffic data as input. In both approaches, variable selection is performed with Pearson's correlation test and random forest; synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) is used to balance the classes in the training dataset, support vector machine (SVM) is used as classifier, and Monte Carlo cross-validation is adopted for robustness. The two approaches are evaluated considering accuracy, recall, specificity/false alarm rate, and area under the curve (AUC). As shown by the results of this paper, the conflict-based approach appears promising, and is able to predict the occurrence of unsafe situations within 5 min with more than 93% accuracy, recall and specificity, significantly outperforming the RTCPM.

A conflict-based approach for real-time road safety analysis: Comparative evaluation with crash-based models

Orsini F.
;
Gecchele G.;Rossi R.;Gastaldi M.
2021

Abstract

An innovative approach for real-time road safety analysis is presented in this work. Unlike traditional real-time crash prediction models (RTCPMs), in which crash data are used in the training phase, a real-time conflict prediction model (RTConfPM) is proposed. This model can be trained using surrogate measures of safety, and can therefore be applied even in situations in which highly spatial/temporal-accurate crash data are unavailable or unreliable. The application of an RTConfPM consists of using a set of input variables recorded during a given time interval, to predict whether there will be an increased risk of unsafe situations in the following interval. This paper presents an RTConfPM to predict rear-end crashes, using time-to-collision values recorded with radar sensors on multiple motorway cross-sections to define unsafe situations, and traffic conditions recorded on the same sections as input to the model. The RTConfPM is compared to a traditional RTCPM, trained with a dataset of crashes located on the same motorway, and using the same traffic data as input. In both approaches, variable selection is performed with Pearson's correlation test and random forest; synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) is used to balance the classes in the training dataset, support vector machine (SVM) is used as classifier, and Monte Carlo cross-validation is adopted for robustness. The two approaches are evaluated considering accuracy, recall, specificity/false alarm rate, and area under the curve (AUC). As shown by the results of this paper, the conflict-based approach appears promising, and is able to predict the occurrence of unsafe situations within 5 min with more than 93% accuracy, recall and specificity, significantly outperforming the RTCPM.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3400102
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