We review current data on clinically suspected [European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2013 criteria] and biopsy-proven [ESC and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria] myocarditis that is temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. ESC/WHO etiological diagnosis of viral myocarditis is based on histological, and immunohistological evidence of nonischemic myocyte necrosis and monolymphocytic infiltration, i.e., myocarditis, plus the identification of a specific cardiotropic virus by molecular techniques, in particular polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/in-situ hybridization, on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)/autopsy tissue. There is not yet definitive EMB/autopsy proof that SARS-CoV-2 causes direct cardiomyocyte damage in association with histological myocarditis. Clinical epidemiology data suggest that myocarditis is uncommon for both SARS-CoV-2-positive and -negative PCR cases. We hypothesize that the rare virus-negative biopsy-proven cases may represent new-onset immune-mediated or latent pre-existing autoimmune forms, triggered or fostered by the hyperinflammatory state of severe COVID-19. We recommend the application of the ESC/WHO definitions and diagnostic criteria in future reports to avoid low-quality scientific information leading to an inaccurate estimate of myocarditis incidence based on misdiagnosis. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Clinically Suspected and Biopsy-Proven Myocarditis Temporally Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Caforio, Alida L P;Baritussio, Anna;Basso, Cristina;Marcolongo, Renzo
2022

Abstract

We review current data on clinically suspected [European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2013 criteria] and biopsy-proven [ESC and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria] myocarditis that is temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. ESC/WHO etiological diagnosis of viral myocarditis is based on histological, and immunohistological evidence of nonischemic myocyte necrosis and monolymphocytic infiltration, i.e., myocarditis, plus the identification of a specific cardiotropic virus by molecular techniques, in particular polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/in-situ hybridization, on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)/autopsy tissue. There is not yet definitive EMB/autopsy proof that SARS-CoV-2 causes direct cardiomyocyte damage in association with histological myocarditis. Clinical epidemiology data suggest that myocarditis is uncommon for both SARS-CoV-2-positive and -negative PCR cases. We hypothesize that the rare virus-negative biopsy-proven cases may represent new-onset immune-mediated or latent pre-existing autoimmune forms, triggered or fostered by the hyperinflammatory state of severe COVID-19. We recommend the application of the ESC/WHO definitions and diagnostic criteria in future reports to avoid low-quality scientific information leading to an inaccurate estimate of myocarditis incidence based on misdiagnosis. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3400290
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