22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a severe genetic syndrome characterized by cognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Neuroimaging alterations have been extensively reported in 22q11DS, both in gray and white matter structures. However, a considerable variability among the results affects the generalizability of the findings to date. Herein, we reviewed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in 22q11DS, their association with psychosis and cognition, and the implications of DTI studies on neurodevelopment in 22q11DS. We also investigated differences between 22q11DS and schizophrenic patients without 22q11DS. Using an online search of PubMed and Embase, we identified studies investigating DTI findings in 22q11DS. After selecting eligible studies in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guideline, we included thirty-one studies. Overall, 22q11DS patients show altered structural connectivity and disrupted microstructural organization of most cortical and subcortical structures and white matter tracts. Moreover, despite a significant heterogeneity in the results, reduced diffusivity measures and elevated fractional anisotropy were observed. However controversial, compared to typically developing children, 22q11DS patients reached the peak of fractional anisotropy (FA) and the trough of radial diffusivity (RD) at an older age, which shows neurodevelopmental delay. DTI measures were also associated with psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive review of microstructural alterations in 22q11DS. Future larger investigations on this syndrome could potentially lead to the detection of early diagnostic imaging markers for genetically induced schizophrenia, thus improving the treatment and, ultimately, the outcome.

Brain microstructural abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies

Aarabi M.;Cattarinussi G.;Sambataro F.
2021

Abstract

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a severe genetic syndrome characterized by cognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Neuroimaging alterations have been extensively reported in 22q11DS, both in gray and white matter structures. However, a considerable variability among the results affects the generalizability of the findings to date. Herein, we reviewed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in 22q11DS, their association with psychosis and cognition, and the implications of DTI studies on neurodevelopment in 22q11DS. We also investigated differences between 22q11DS and schizophrenic patients without 22q11DS. Using an online search of PubMed and Embase, we identified studies investigating DTI findings in 22q11DS. After selecting eligible studies in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guideline, we included thirty-one studies. Overall, 22q11DS patients show altered structural connectivity and disrupted microstructural organization of most cortical and subcortical structures and white matter tracts. Moreover, despite a significant heterogeneity in the results, reduced diffusivity measures and elevated fractional anisotropy were observed. However controversial, compared to typically developing children, 22q11DS patients reached the peak of fractional anisotropy (FA) and the trough of radial diffusivity (RD) at an older age, which shows neurodevelopmental delay. DTI measures were also associated with psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive review of microstructural alterations in 22q11DS. Future larger investigations on this syndrome could potentially lead to the detection of early diagnostic imaging markers for genetically induced schizophrenia, thus improving the treatment and, ultimately, the outcome.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3405037
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