Background: Pulmonary gas exchange during diving or in a dry hyperbaric environment is affected by increased breathing gas density and possibly water immersion. During free diving there is also the effect of apnea. Few studies have published blood gas data in underwater or hyperbaric environments: this review summarizes the available literature and was used to test the hypothesis that arterial PO2 under hyperbaric conditions can be predicted from blood gas measurement at 1 atmosphere assuming a constant arterial/alveolar PO2 ratio (a:A). Methods: A systematic search was performed on traditional sources including arterial blood gases obtained on humans in hyperbaric or underwater environments. The a:A was calculated at 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA). For each condition, predicted PaO2 at pressure was calculated using the 1 ATA a:A, and the measured PaO2 was plotted against the predicted value with Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: Of 3640 records reviewed, 30 studies were included: 25 were reports describing values obtained in hyperbaric chambers, and the remaining were collected while underwater. Increased inspired O2 at pressure resulted in increased PaO2, although underlying lung disease in patients treated with hyperbaric oxygen attenuated the rise. PaCO2 generally increased only slightly. In breath-hold divers, hyperoxemia generally occurred at maximum depth, with hypoxemia after surfacing. The a:A adequately predicted the PaO2 under various conditions: dry (r=0.993, p< 0.0001); rest vs. exercise (r=0.999, p< 0.0001); and breathing mixtures (r=0.995, p< 0.0001). Conclusion: Pulmonary oxygenation under hyperbaric conditions can be reliably and accurately predicted from 1 ATA a:A measurements.

Blood Gas Analyses in Hyperbaric and Underwater Environments: A Systematic Review

Paganini, Matteo
;
Giacon, Tommaso Antonio;Bosco, Gerardo
2021

Abstract

Background: Pulmonary gas exchange during diving or in a dry hyperbaric environment is affected by increased breathing gas density and possibly water immersion. During free diving there is also the effect of apnea. Few studies have published blood gas data in underwater or hyperbaric environments: this review summarizes the available literature and was used to test the hypothesis that arterial PO2 under hyperbaric conditions can be predicted from blood gas measurement at 1 atmosphere assuming a constant arterial/alveolar PO2 ratio (a:A). Methods: A systematic search was performed on traditional sources including arterial blood gases obtained on humans in hyperbaric or underwater environments. The a:A was calculated at 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA). For each condition, predicted PaO2 at pressure was calculated using the 1 ATA a:A, and the measured PaO2 was plotted against the predicted value with Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: Of 3640 records reviewed, 30 studies were included: 25 were reports describing values obtained in hyperbaric chambers, and the remaining were collected while underwater. Increased inspired O2 at pressure resulted in increased PaO2, although underlying lung disease in patients treated with hyperbaric oxygen attenuated the rise. PaCO2 generally increased only slightly. In breath-hold divers, hyperoxemia generally occurred at maximum depth, with hypoxemia after surfacing. The a:A adequately predicted the PaO2 under various conditions: dry (r=0.993, p< 0.0001); rest vs. exercise (r=0.999, p< 0.0001); and breathing mixtures (r=0.995, p< 0.0001). Conclusion: Pulmonary oxygenation under hyperbaric conditions can be reliably and accurately predicted from 1 ATA a:A measurements.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

Caricamento pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3410153
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact