Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common sensory impairments worldwide and represents a critical medical and public health issue. Since the mid-1900s, great efforts have been aimed at understanding the etiology of both syndromic and non-syndromic HL and identifying correlations with specific audiological phenotypes. The extraordinary discoveries in the field of molecular genetics during the last three decades have contributed substantially to the current knowledge. Next-generation sequencing technologies have dramatically increased the diagnostic rate for genetic HL, enabling the detection of novel variants in known deafness-related genes and the discovery of new genes implicated in hearing disease. Overall, genetic factors account for at least 40% of the cases with HL, but a portion of affected patients still lack a definite molecular diagnosis. Important steps forward have been made, but many aspects still have to be clarified. In particular, the role of epigenetics in the development, function and pathology of hearing is a research field that still needs to be explored. This research is extremely challenging due to the time- and tissue-dependent variability of the epigenetic changes. Multisystem diseases are expected to be investigated at first: specific epi-signatures have been identified for several syndromic disorders and represent potential markers for molecular diagnostics.

Genetics & Epigenetics of Hereditary Deafness: An Historical Overview

Martini, Alessandro
;
Sorrentino, Flavia;Sorrentino, Ugo;Cassina, Matteo
2021

Abstract

Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common sensory impairments worldwide and represents a critical medical and public health issue. Since the mid-1900s, great efforts have been aimed at understanding the etiology of both syndromic and non-syndromic HL and identifying correlations with specific audiological phenotypes. The extraordinary discoveries in the field of molecular genetics during the last three decades have contributed substantially to the current knowledge. Next-generation sequencing technologies have dramatically increased the diagnostic rate for genetic HL, enabling the detection of novel variants in known deafness-related genes and the discovery of new genes implicated in hearing disease. Overall, genetic factors account for at least 40% of the cases with HL, but a portion of affected patients still lack a definite molecular diagnosis. Important steps forward have been made, but many aspects still have to be clarified. In particular, the role of epigenetics in the development, function and pathology of hearing is a research field that still needs to be explored. This research is extremely challenging due to the time- and tissue-dependent variability of the epigenetic changes. Multisystem diseases are expected to be investigated at first: specific epi-signatures have been identified for several syndromic disorders and represent potential markers for molecular diagnostics.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3413339
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