Myocarditis is an inflammatory heart disease induced by infectious and non-infectious causes frequently triggering immune-mediated pathologic mechanisms leading to myocardial damage and dysfunction. In approximately half of the patients, acute myocarditis resolves spontane-ously while in the remaining cases, it may evolve into serious complications including inflammatory cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, death, or heart transplantation. Due to the large variability in clinical presentation, unpredictable course of the disease, and lack of established causative treatment, my-ocarditis represents a challenging diagnosis in modern cardiology. Moreover, an increase in the incidence of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy has been observed in recent years. However, there is a growing potential of available non-invasive diagnostic methods (biomarkers, serum anti-heart autoantibodies (AHA), microRNAs, speckle tracking echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance T1 and T2 tissue mapping, positron emission tomography), which may refine the diagnostic workup and/or noninvasive follow-up. Personalized management should include the use of endomyocardial biopsy and AHA, which may allow the etiopathogenetic subsets of my-ocarditis (infectious, non-infectious, and/or immune-mediated) to be distinguished and implemen-tation of disease-specific therapies. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, and outline some practical diagnostic, therapeutic, and follow-up algorithms to facilitate comprehensive individualized management of these patients.

Personalized Management of Myocarditis and Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy in Clinical Practice

Baritussio A.;Marcolongo R.;Caforio A. L. P.
2022

Abstract

Myocarditis is an inflammatory heart disease induced by infectious and non-infectious causes frequently triggering immune-mediated pathologic mechanisms leading to myocardial damage and dysfunction. In approximately half of the patients, acute myocarditis resolves spontane-ously while in the remaining cases, it may evolve into serious complications including inflammatory cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, death, or heart transplantation. Due to the large variability in clinical presentation, unpredictable course of the disease, and lack of established causative treatment, my-ocarditis represents a challenging diagnosis in modern cardiology. Moreover, an increase in the incidence of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy has been observed in recent years. However, there is a growing potential of available non-invasive diagnostic methods (biomarkers, serum anti-heart autoantibodies (AHA), microRNAs, speckle tracking echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance T1 and T2 tissue mapping, positron emission tomography), which may refine the diagnostic workup and/or noninvasive follow-up. Personalized management should include the use of endomyocardial biopsy and AHA, which may allow the etiopathogenetic subsets of my-ocarditis (infectious, non-infectious, and/or immune-mediated) to be distinguished and implemen-tation of disease-specific therapies. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, and outline some practical diagnostic, therapeutic, and follow-up algorithms to facilitate comprehensive individualized management of these patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3416145
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