In human cells, nucleic acids adopt several non-canonical structures that regulate key cellular processes. Among them, G-quadruplexes (G4s) are stable structures that form in guanine-rich regions in vitro and in cells. G4 folded/unfolded state shapes numerous cellular processes, including genome replication, transcription, and translation. Moreover, G4 folding is involved in genomic instability. G4s have been described to multimerize, forming high-order structures in both DNA and/or RNA strands. Multimeric G4s can be formed by adjacent intramolecular G4s joined by stacking interactions or connected by short loops. Multimeric G4s can also originate from the assembly of guanines embedded on independent DNA or RNA strands. Notably, crucial regions of the human genome, such as the 3′-terminal overhang of the telomeric DNA as well as the open reading frame of genes involved in the preservation of neuron viability in the human central and peripheral nervous system are prone to form multimeric G4s. The biological importance of such structures has been recently described, with multimeric G4s playing potentially protective or deleterious effects in the pathogenic cascade of various diseases. Here, we portray the multifaceted scenario of multimeric G4s, in terms of structural properties, biological roles, and targeting strategies.

Multimeric G-quadruplexes: A review on their biological roles and targeting

Frasson I.;Richter S. N.
;
2022

Abstract

In human cells, nucleic acids adopt several non-canonical structures that regulate key cellular processes. Among them, G-quadruplexes (G4s) are stable structures that form in guanine-rich regions in vitro and in cells. G4 folded/unfolded state shapes numerous cellular processes, including genome replication, transcription, and translation. Moreover, G4 folding is involved in genomic instability. G4s have been described to multimerize, forming high-order structures in both DNA and/or RNA strands. Multimeric G4s can be formed by adjacent intramolecular G4s joined by stacking interactions or connected by short loops. Multimeric G4s can also originate from the assembly of guanines embedded on independent DNA or RNA strands. Notably, crucial regions of the human genome, such as the 3′-terminal overhang of the telomeric DNA as well as the open reading frame of genes involved in the preservation of neuron viability in the human central and peripheral nervous system are prone to form multimeric G4s. The biological importance of such structures has been recently described, with multimeric G4s playing potentially protective or deleterious effects in the pathogenic cascade of various diseases. Here, we portray the multifaceted scenario of multimeric G4s, in terms of structural properties, biological roles, and targeting strategies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3417213
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