Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been previously mediated by ultrasound using a low concentration of copper complex in water (sono-ATRP) or by addition of piezoelectric materials in organic solvents (mechano-ATRP). However, these procedures proceeded slowly and yielded polymers contaminated by new chains initiated by hydroxyl radicals or by residual piezoelectrics. Unexpectedly, in the presence of sodium carbonate, rapid sono-ATRP of methyl acrylate in DMSO was achieved (80% conversion in <2 h) with excellent control of molecular weights and low dispersities (M w /M n < 1.2). The in situ formed Cu II /L-CO 3 complex in the the presence of ultrasound generated Cu I /L species as activators for ATRP and carbonate radical anions. The latter were scavenged by DMSO that was oxidized to dimethyl sulfone. This simple and robust process employs low-intensity ultrasound, air-stable Cu II /L catalysts, and carbonate or bicarbonate salts (washing soda or baking soda) to prepare well-defined polyacrylates.

Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Enabled by Sonochemically Labile Cu-carbonate Species

Lorandi F.;Fantin M.;
2019

Abstract

Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been previously mediated by ultrasound using a low concentration of copper complex in water (sono-ATRP) or by addition of piezoelectric materials in organic solvents (mechano-ATRP). However, these procedures proceeded slowly and yielded polymers contaminated by new chains initiated by hydroxyl radicals or by residual piezoelectrics. Unexpectedly, in the presence of sodium carbonate, rapid sono-ATRP of methyl acrylate in DMSO was achieved (80% conversion in <2 h) with excellent control of molecular weights and low dispersities (M w /M n < 1.2). The in situ formed Cu II /L-CO 3 complex in the the presence of ultrasound generated Cu I /L species as activators for ATRP and carbonate radical anions. The latter were scavenged by DMSO that was oxidized to dimethyl sulfone. This simple and robust process employs low-intensity ultrasound, air-stable Cu II /L catalysts, and carbonate or bicarbonate salts (washing soda or baking soda) to prepare well-defined polyacrylates.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3417753
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