Nanoscale biosensors, a highly promising technique in clinical analysis, can provide sensitive yet label-free detection of biomolecules. The spatial and chemical specificity of the surface coverage, the proper immobilization of the bioreceptor as well as the underlying interfacial phenomena are crucial elements for optimizing the performance of a biosensor. Due to experimental limitations at the microscopic level, integrated cross-disciplinary approaches that combine in silico design with experimental measurements have the potential to present a powerful new paradigm that tackles the issue of developing novel biosensors. In some cases, computational studies can be seen as alternative approaches to assess the microscopic working mechanisms of biosensors. Nonetheless, the complex architecture of a biosensor, associated with the collective contribution from “substrate– receptor–analyte” conjugate in a solvent, often requires extensive atomistic simulations and systems of prohibitive size which need to be addressed. In silico studies of functionalized surfaces also require ad hoc force field parameterization, as existing force fields for biomolecules are usually unable to correctly describe the biomolecule/surface interface. Thus, the computational studies in this field are limited to date. In this review, we aim to introduce fundamental principles that govern the absorption of biomolecules onto functionalized nanomaterials and to report state-of-the-art computational strategies to rationally design nanoscale biosensors. A detailed account of available in silico strategies used to drive and/or optimize the synthesis of functionalized nanomaterials for biosensing will be presented. The insights will not only stimulate the field to rationally design functionalized nanomaterials with improved biosensing performance but also foster research on the required functionalization to improve biomolecule–surface complex formation as a whole.

Atomistic Simulations of Functionalized Nano-Materials for Biosensors Applications

Dutta S.;Corni S.;
2022

Abstract

Nanoscale biosensors, a highly promising technique in clinical analysis, can provide sensitive yet label-free detection of biomolecules. The spatial and chemical specificity of the surface coverage, the proper immobilization of the bioreceptor as well as the underlying interfacial phenomena are crucial elements for optimizing the performance of a biosensor. Due to experimental limitations at the microscopic level, integrated cross-disciplinary approaches that combine in silico design with experimental measurements have the potential to present a powerful new paradigm that tackles the issue of developing novel biosensors. In some cases, computational studies can be seen as alternative approaches to assess the microscopic working mechanisms of biosensors. Nonetheless, the complex architecture of a biosensor, associated with the collective contribution from “substrate– receptor–analyte” conjugate in a solvent, often requires extensive atomistic simulations and systems of prohibitive size which need to be addressed. In silico studies of functionalized surfaces also require ad hoc force field parameterization, as existing force fields for biomolecules are usually unable to correctly describe the biomolecule/surface interface. Thus, the computational studies in this field are limited to date. In this review, we aim to introduce fundamental principles that govern the absorption of biomolecules onto functionalized nanomaterials and to report state-of-the-art computational strategies to rationally design nanoscale biosensors. A detailed account of available in silico strategies used to drive and/or optimize the synthesis of functionalized nanomaterials for biosensing will be presented. The insights will not only stimulate the field to rationally design functionalized nanomaterials with improved biosensing performance but also foster research on the required functionalization to improve biomolecule–surface complex formation as a whole.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3419671
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