Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGLL) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the clonal expansion of cytotoxic T-LGL or NK cells. Chronic isolated neutropenia represents the clinical hallmark of the disease, being present in up to 80% of cases. New advances were made in the biological characterization of neutropenia in these patients, in particular STAT3 mutations and a discrete immunophenotype are now recognized as relevant features. Nevertheless, the etiology of LGLL-related neutropenia is not completely elucidated and several mechanisms, including humoral abnormalities, bone marrow infiltration/substitution and cell-mediated cytotoxicity might cooperate to its pathogenesis. As a consequence of the multifactorial nature of LGLL-related neutropenia, a targeted therapeutic approach for neutropenic patients has not been developed yet; moreover, specific guidelines based on prospective trials are still lacking, thus making the treatment of this disorder a complex and challenging task. Immunosuppressive therapy represents the current, although poorly effective, therapeutic strategy. The recent identification of a STAT3-mediated miR-146b down-regulation in neutropenic T-LGLL patients emphasized the pathogenetic role of STAT3 activation in neutropenia development. Accordingly, JAK/STAT3 axis inhibition and miR-146b restoration might represent tempting strategies and should be prospectively evaluated for the treatment of neutropenic LGLL patients.

Neutropenia and large granular lymphocyte leukemia: From pathogenesis to therapeutic options

Calabretto G.;Teramo A.;Vicenzetto C.;Gasparini V. R.;Semenzato G.;Zambello R.
2021

Abstract

Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGLL) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the clonal expansion of cytotoxic T-LGL or NK cells. Chronic isolated neutropenia represents the clinical hallmark of the disease, being present in up to 80% of cases. New advances were made in the biological characterization of neutropenia in these patients, in particular STAT3 mutations and a discrete immunophenotype are now recognized as relevant features. Nevertheless, the etiology of LGLL-related neutropenia is not completely elucidated and several mechanisms, including humoral abnormalities, bone marrow infiltration/substitution and cell-mediated cytotoxicity might cooperate to its pathogenesis. As a consequence of the multifactorial nature of LGLL-related neutropenia, a targeted therapeutic approach for neutropenic patients has not been developed yet; moreover, specific guidelines based on prospective trials are still lacking, thus making the treatment of this disorder a complex and challenging task. Immunosuppressive therapy represents the current, although poorly effective, therapeutic strategy. The recent identification of a STAT3-mediated miR-146b down-regulation in neutropenic T-LGLL patients emphasized the pathogenetic role of STAT3 activation in neutropenia development. Accordingly, JAK/STAT3 axis inhibition and miR-146b restoration might represent tempting strategies and should be prospectively evaluated for the treatment of neutropenic LGLL patients.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3420442
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