Background: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with substantial risks, notably hypertensive disorders. Bariatric surgery achieves sustained weight loss and has several cardiovascular benefits, including positive effects on blood pressure, cardiac geometry, and both systolic and diastolic function. Pregnancy following bariatric surgery is also associated with improved outcomes, including a reduced risk of hypertensive disorders. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain uncertain. Maternal cardiovascular adaptation plays a vital role in maintaining a healthy pregnancy, and maladaptation has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, to date, the maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy after bariatric surgery has not been investigated. Objective: To investigate the maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy in women with previous bariatric surgery compared with women with a similar early-pregnancy body mass index, age, and race but no history of weight loss surgery. Study Design: This was a prospective, observational, longitudinal study including pregnant women with (n=41) and without (n=41) a history of bariatric surgery. The participants were seen at 3 time points; at 12 to 14, 20 to 24, and 30 to 32 weeks of pregnancy. At each visit, the blood pressure was measured and the maternal cardiovascular system was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography. Two-dimensional speckle tracking was performed to assess the global longitudinal and circumferential strain on a subset of patients (15 in each group). Offline analysis was performed according to the European and American echocardiography guidelines. Multilevel linear mixed-effect models were used for all the comparisons. Results: Compared with the no-surgery group, women with previous bariatric surgery, had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output across all the trimesters (P<.01 for all comparisons), with an evidence of more favorable diastolic indices, including a higher E-wave/A-wave ratio across the mitral valve (P<.001), higher mitral velocity at the lateral and medial annulus (E’) (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively), and a lower left atrial volume (P<.05). Furthermore, women with previous bariatric surgery demonstrated lower global longitudinal (P<.01) and circumferential strain (P=.02), which is suggestive of better systolic function. Conclusion: Our findings indicate better cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy in women with previous bariatric surgery than in pregnant women of a similar early-pregnancy body mass index but no history of surgery.

Maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy in women with previous bariatric surgery

Patel D.;Avesani M.;Di Salvo G.;
2022

Abstract

Background: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with substantial risks, notably hypertensive disorders. Bariatric surgery achieves sustained weight loss and has several cardiovascular benefits, including positive effects on blood pressure, cardiac geometry, and both systolic and diastolic function. Pregnancy following bariatric surgery is also associated with improved outcomes, including a reduced risk of hypertensive disorders. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain uncertain. Maternal cardiovascular adaptation plays a vital role in maintaining a healthy pregnancy, and maladaptation has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, to date, the maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy after bariatric surgery has not been investigated. Objective: To investigate the maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy in women with previous bariatric surgery compared with women with a similar early-pregnancy body mass index, age, and race but no history of weight loss surgery. Study Design: This was a prospective, observational, longitudinal study including pregnant women with (n=41) and without (n=41) a history of bariatric surgery. The participants were seen at 3 time points; at 12 to 14, 20 to 24, and 30 to 32 weeks of pregnancy. At each visit, the blood pressure was measured and the maternal cardiovascular system was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography. Two-dimensional speckle tracking was performed to assess the global longitudinal and circumferential strain on a subset of patients (15 in each group). Offline analysis was performed according to the European and American echocardiography guidelines. Multilevel linear mixed-effect models were used for all the comparisons. Results: Compared with the no-surgery group, women with previous bariatric surgery, had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output across all the trimesters (P<.01 for all comparisons), with an evidence of more favorable diastolic indices, including a higher E-wave/A-wave ratio across the mitral valve (P<.001), higher mitral velocity at the lateral and medial annulus (E’) (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively), and a lower left atrial volume (P<.05). Furthermore, women with previous bariatric surgery demonstrated lower global longitudinal (P<.01) and circumferential strain (P=.02), which is suggestive of better systolic function. Conclusion: Our findings indicate better cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy in women with previous bariatric surgery than in pregnant women of a similar early-pregnancy body mass index but no history of surgery.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3443096
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