Background: Breath-hold diving (BH-diving) is associated to extreme environmental conditions, prolonged physical activity, and complex adaptation mechanisms to supply enough O2 to vital organs. Consequently, one of the biggest effects could be an increased exercise-induced muscle fatigue, in both skeletal and cardiac muscles that can induce an increase of muscles injury markers including creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) when concerning the skeletal muscle, cardiac creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MBm) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) when concerning the cardiac muscle, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as index of muscle stress. The aim of this study is to investigate serum cardiac and skeletal muscle markers before and after a BH-diving training session. Results: We found statistically significant increases of CK (T0: 136.1% p < 0.0001; T1: 138.5%, p < 0.0001), CK-MBm (T0: 145.1%, p < 0.0001; T1: 153.2%, p < 0.0001) LDH (T0: 110.4%, p < 0.0003; T1: 110.1%, p < 0.0013) in both T0 and T1 blood samples, as compared to basal value. AST showed a statistically significant increase only at T0 (106.8%, p < 0.0007) while ALT did not exhibit statistically significant changes. We did not find any changes in cTnI levels between pre-dive and post-dive samples. Conclusions: Our data seem to indicate that during a BH-diving training session, skeletal and cardiac muscles react to physical effort releasing stress-related substances. Although the peculiar nature of BH-diving makes it difficult to understand if our results are related only to exercise induced muscle adaptation or whether acute hypoxia or a response to environmental changes (pressure) play a role to explain the observed changes, further studies are needed to better understand if these biomarker changes are linked to physical exercise or to acute hypoxia, or if both conditions play a role.

Serum Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Marker Changes in Repetitive Breath-hold Diving

Danilo Cialoni;Andrea Brizzolari;Nicola Sponsiello;Gerardo Bosco;Alessandro Marroni;
2021

Abstract

Background: Breath-hold diving (BH-diving) is associated to extreme environmental conditions, prolonged physical activity, and complex adaptation mechanisms to supply enough O2 to vital organs. Consequently, one of the biggest effects could be an increased exercise-induced muscle fatigue, in both skeletal and cardiac muscles that can induce an increase of muscles injury markers including creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) when concerning the skeletal muscle, cardiac creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MBm) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) when concerning the cardiac muscle, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as index of muscle stress. The aim of this study is to investigate serum cardiac and skeletal muscle markers before and after a BH-diving training session. Results: We found statistically significant increases of CK (T0: 136.1% p < 0.0001; T1: 138.5%, p < 0.0001), CK-MBm (T0: 145.1%, p < 0.0001; T1: 153.2%, p < 0.0001) LDH (T0: 110.4%, p < 0.0003; T1: 110.1%, p < 0.0013) in both T0 and T1 blood samples, as compared to basal value. AST showed a statistically significant increase only at T0 (106.8%, p < 0.0007) while ALT did not exhibit statistically significant changes. We did not find any changes in cTnI levels between pre-dive and post-dive samples. Conclusions: Our data seem to indicate that during a BH-diving training session, skeletal and cardiac muscles react to physical effort releasing stress-related substances. Although the peculiar nature of BH-diving makes it difficult to understand if our results are related only to exercise induced muscle adaptation or whether acute hypoxia or a response to environmental changes (pressure) play a role to explain the observed changes, further studies are needed to better understand if these biomarker changes are linked to physical exercise or to acute hypoxia, or if both conditions play a role.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3447390
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