Background: Regular physical activity (PA) contributes to the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases and reduces the risk of premature death. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a variety of chronic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, bone and joint diseases (eg, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis), depression, and colon and breast cancer. Population aging and the related increase in chronic diseases have a major impact on the health care systems of most Western countries and will produce an even more significant effect in the future. Monitoring PA is a valuable method of determining whether people are performing enough PA so as to prevent chronic diseases or are showing early symptoms of those diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of wearable devices in quantifying the PA of elderly people in a real-life setting. Methods: Participants aged 70 to 90 years with the ability to walk safely without any walking aid for at least 300 meters, who had no walking disabilities or episodes of falling while walking in the last 12 months, were asked to walk 150 meters at their preferred pace wearing a vívoactive HR device (Garmin Ltd) and actual steps were monitored and tallied by a researcher using a hand-tally counter to assess the performance of the device at a natural speed. A Bland-Altman plot was used to analyze the difference between manually counted steps and wearable device-measured steps. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was computed (with a 95% confidence interval) between step measurements. The generalized linear mixed-model (GLMM) ICCs were estimated, providing a random effect term (random intercept) for the individual measurements (gold standard and device). Both adjusted and conditional ICCs were computed for the GLMM models considering separately the effect of age, sex, BMI, and obesity. Analyses were performed using R software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing) with the rms package. Results: A total of 23 females and 26 males were enrolled in the study. The median age of the participants was 75 years. The Bland-Altman plot revealed that, excluding one observation, all differences across measurements were in the confidence bounds, demonstrating the substantial agreement between the step count measurements. The results were confirmed by an ICC equal to .98 (.96-.99), demonstrating excellent agreement between the two sets of measurements. Conclusions: The level of accuracy of wearable devices in quantifying the PA of elderly people in a real-life setting that was found in this study supports the idea of considering wrist-wearable nonmedical devices (widely available in nonspecialized stores) as reliable tools. Both health care professionals and informal caregivers could monitor the level of PA of their patients.

Usability and accuracy of a smartwatch for the assessment of physical activity in the elderly population: Observational study

Martinato M.;Lorenzoni G.;Buratin A.;Azzolina D.;Gregori D.
2021

Abstract

Background: Regular physical activity (PA) contributes to the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases and reduces the risk of premature death. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a variety of chronic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, bone and joint diseases (eg, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis), depression, and colon and breast cancer. Population aging and the related increase in chronic diseases have a major impact on the health care systems of most Western countries and will produce an even more significant effect in the future. Monitoring PA is a valuable method of determining whether people are performing enough PA so as to prevent chronic diseases or are showing early symptoms of those diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of wearable devices in quantifying the PA of elderly people in a real-life setting. Methods: Participants aged 70 to 90 years with the ability to walk safely without any walking aid for at least 300 meters, who had no walking disabilities or episodes of falling while walking in the last 12 months, were asked to walk 150 meters at their preferred pace wearing a vívoactive HR device (Garmin Ltd) and actual steps were monitored and tallied by a researcher using a hand-tally counter to assess the performance of the device at a natural speed. A Bland-Altman plot was used to analyze the difference between manually counted steps and wearable device-measured steps. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was computed (with a 95% confidence interval) between step measurements. The generalized linear mixed-model (GLMM) ICCs were estimated, providing a random effect term (random intercept) for the individual measurements (gold standard and device). Both adjusted and conditional ICCs were computed for the GLMM models considering separately the effect of age, sex, BMI, and obesity. Analyses were performed using R software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing) with the rms package. Results: A total of 23 females and 26 males were enrolled in the study. The median age of the participants was 75 years. The Bland-Altman plot revealed that, excluding one observation, all differences across measurements were in the confidence bounds, demonstrating the substantial agreement between the step count measurements. The results were confirmed by an ICC equal to .98 (.96-.99), demonstrating excellent agreement between the two sets of measurements. Conclusions: The level of accuracy of wearable devices in quantifying the PA of elderly people in a real-life setting that was found in this study supports the idea of considering wrist-wearable nonmedical devices (widely available in nonspecialized stores) as reliable tools. Both health care professionals and informal caregivers could monitor the level of PA of their patients.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3449080
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