Astronauts experience dramatic loss of muscle mass, decreased strength and insulin resistance, despite performing daily intense physical exercise that would lead to muscle growth on Earth. Partially mimicking spaceflight, prolonged bed rest causes muscle atrophy, loss of force and glucose intolerance. To unravel the underlying mechanisms, we employed highly sensitive single fiber proteomics to detail the molecular remodeling caused by unloading and inactivity during bed rest and changes of the muscle proteome of astronauts before and after a mission on the International Space Station. Muscle focal adhesions, involved in fiber-matrix interaction and insulin receptor stabilization, are prominently downregulated in both bed rest and spaceflight and restored upon reloading. Pathways of anti-oxidant response increased strongly in slow but not in fast muscle fibers. Unloading alone upregulated markers of neuromuscular damage and the pathway controlling EIF5A hypusination. These proteomic signatures of mechanical unloading in muscle fiber subtypes contribute to disentangle the effect of microgravity from the pleiotropic challenges of spaceflight.

Signatures of muscle disuse in spaceflight and bed rest revealed by single muscle fiber proteomics

Murgia, Marta
;
Ciciliot, Stefano;Reggiani, Carlo;Schiaffino, Stefano;Franchi, Martino V;Toniolo, Luana;Blaauw, Bert;Sandri, Marco;Narici, Marco V;
2022

Abstract

Astronauts experience dramatic loss of muscle mass, decreased strength and insulin resistance, despite performing daily intense physical exercise that would lead to muscle growth on Earth. Partially mimicking spaceflight, prolonged bed rest causes muscle atrophy, loss of force and glucose intolerance. To unravel the underlying mechanisms, we employed highly sensitive single fiber proteomics to detail the molecular remodeling caused by unloading and inactivity during bed rest and changes of the muscle proteome of astronauts before and after a mission on the International Space Station. Muscle focal adhesions, involved in fiber-matrix interaction and insulin receptor stabilization, are prominently downregulated in both bed rest and spaceflight and restored upon reloading. Pathways of anti-oxidant response increased strongly in slow but not in fast muscle fibers. Unloading alone upregulated markers of neuromuscular damage and the pathway controlling EIF5A hypusination. These proteomic signatures of mechanical unloading in muscle fiber subtypes contribute to disentangle the effect of microgravity from the pleiotropic challenges of spaceflight.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3450535
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