Ependymomas are rare primary central nervous system tumors. They can form anywhere along the neuraxis, but in adults, these tumors predominantly occur in the spine and less frequently intracranially. Ependymal tumors represent a heterogenous group of gliomas, and the WHO 2016 classification is based essentially on a grading system, with ependymomas classified as grade I, II (classic), or III (anaplastic). In adults, surgery is the primary initial treatment, while radiotherapy is employed as an adjuvant treatment in some cases of grade II and in all cases of anaplastic ependymoma; chemotherapy is reserved for recurrent cases. In recent years, important and interesting advances in the molecular characterization of ependymomas have been made, allowing for the identification of nine molecular subgroups of ependymal tumors and moving toward subgroup-specific patients with improved risk stratification for treatment-decisions and future prospective trials. New targeted agents or immunotherapies for ependymoma patients are being explored for recurrent disease. This review summarizes recent molecular advances in the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial ependymomas including surgery, radiation therapy and systemic therapies.

An Overview of Intracranial Ependymomas in Adults

Lombardi, Giuseppe;Pizzi, Marco;Cerretti, Giulia;Bonaudo, Camilla;Gardiman, Marina Paola;Gregucci, Fabiana;De Bartolo, Debora;Zagonel, Vittorina;
2021

Abstract

Ependymomas are rare primary central nervous system tumors. They can form anywhere along the neuraxis, but in adults, these tumors predominantly occur in the spine and less frequently intracranially. Ependymal tumors represent a heterogenous group of gliomas, and the WHO 2016 classification is based essentially on a grading system, with ependymomas classified as grade I, II (classic), or III (anaplastic). In adults, surgery is the primary initial treatment, while radiotherapy is employed as an adjuvant treatment in some cases of grade II and in all cases of anaplastic ependymoma; chemotherapy is reserved for recurrent cases. In recent years, important and interesting advances in the molecular characterization of ependymomas have been made, allowing for the identification of nine molecular subgroups of ependymal tumors and moving toward subgroup-specific patients with improved risk stratification for treatment-decisions and future prospective trials. New targeted agents or immunotherapies for ependymoma patients are being explored for recurrent disease. This review summarizes recent molecular advances in the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial ependymomas including surgery, radiation therapy and systemic therapies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3451798
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