Diamonds are witnesses of processes that have operated in Earth's mantle over more than 3 b.y. Essential to our understanding of these processes is the determination of diamond crystallization ages. These cannot be directly determined on diamond, but they can be calculated using radiogenic isotopic systematics of suitable minerals included in a diamond. This method relies on the assumption that the mineral inclusions were in isotopic equilibrium with the diamond-forming medium. We evaluated the validity of Sm-Nd ages yielded by clinopyroxene inclusions by combining crystallographic orientation analyses and Nd diffusion modeling at the relevant conditions for Earth's cratonic mantle. We investigated the crystallographic orientation relationships (CORs) for 54 clinopyroxene inclusions within 18 diamonds from South Africa and Siberia. Clinopyroxene inclusions in some diamonds showed specific CORs with their hosts, indicating possible syngenesis. Other samples had clusters of clinopyroxene inclusions sharing the same orientation but no specific orientation relative to their hosts, indicating that the inclusions are older than the diamond (i.e., they are protogenetic). Diffusion modeling in the temperature range typical for lithospheric diamonds (900-1400 degrees C) showed that resetting of the Sm-Nd isotopic system in clinopyroxene grains larger than 0.05 mm requires geologically long interaction with the diamond-forming fluid/melt (>3.5 m.y. at average temperature of similar to 1150 degrees C). Depending on inclusion size and temperature regime, protogenetic clinopyroxene inclusions may not fully re-equilibrate during diamond-formation events. We suggest that small clinopyroxene inclusions (<0.2 mm) that equilibrated at temperatures higher than 1050-1080 degrees C may be the most suitable for age determinations.

Protogenetic clinopyroxene inclusions in diamond and Nd diffusion modeling-Implications for diamond dating

Pasqualetto, L;Nestola, F;Pamato, MG;Nimis, P;Harris, JW
2022

Abstract

Diamonds are witnesses of processes that have operated in Earth's mantle over more than 3 b.y. Essential to our understanding of these processes is the determination of diamond crystallization ages. These cannot be directly determined on diamond, but they can be calculated using radiogenic isotopic systematics of suitable minerals included in a diamond. This method relies on the assumption that the mineral inclusions were in isotopic equilibrium with the diamond-forming medium. We evaluated the validity of Sm-Nd ages yielded by clinopyroxene inclusions by combining crystallographic orientation analyses and Nd diffusion modeling at the relevant conditions for Earth's cratonic mantle. We investigated the crystallographic orientation relationships (CORs) for 54 clinopyroxene inclusions within 18 diamonds from South Africa and Siberia. Clinopyroxene inclusions in some diamonds showed specific CORs with their hosts, indicating possible syngenesis. Other samples had clusters of clinopyroxene inclusions sharing the same orientation but no specific orientation relative to their hosts, indicating that the inclusions are older than the diamond (i.e., they are protogenetic). Diffusion modeling in the temperature range typical for lithospheric diamonds (900-1400 degrees C) showed that resetting of the Sm-Nd isotopic system in clinopyroxene grains larger than 0.05 mm requires geologically long interaction with the diamond-forming fluid/melt (>3.5 m.y. at average temperature of similar to 1150 degrees C). Depending on inclusion size and temperature regime, protogenetic clinopyroxene inclusions may not fully re-equilibrate during diamond-formation events. We suggest that small clinopyroxene inclusions (<0.2 mm) that equilibrated at temperatures higher than 1050-1080 degrees C may be the most suitable for age determinations.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3454323
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