The purification of a protein inhibiting lipid peroxidation led to the discovery of the selenoperoxidase GPx4 forty years ago. Thus, the evidence of the enzymatic activity was reached after identifying the biological effect and unambiguously defined the relationship between the biological function and the enzymatic activity. In the syllogism where GPx4 inhibits lipid peroxidation and its inhibition is lethal, cell death is operated by lipid peroxidation. Based on this rationale, this form of cell death emerged as regulated iron-enforced oxygen toxicity and was named ferroptosis in 2012. In the last decades, we learned that reduction of lipid hydroperoxides is indispensable and, in cooperation with prooxidant systems, controls the critical steady state of lipid peroxidation. This concept defined the GPx4 reaction as both the target for possible anti-cancer therapy and if insufficient, as cause of degenerative diseases. We know the reaction mechanism, but the details of the interaction at the membrane cytosol interface are still poorly defined. We know the gene structure, but the knowledge about expression control is still limited. The same holds true for post-transcriptional modifications. Reverse genetics indicate that GPx4 has a role in inflammation, immunity, and differentiation, but the observations emerging from these studies need a more specifically addressed biochemical evidence. Finally, the role of GPx4 in spermatogenesis disclosed an area unconnected to lipid peroxidation. In its mitochondrial and nuclear form, the peroxidase catalyzes the oxidation of protein thiols in two specific aspects of sperm maturation: stabilization of the mid-piece and chromatin compaction. Thus, although available evidence converges to the notion that GPx4 activity is vital due to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, it is reasonable to foresee other unknown aspects of the GPx4 reaction to be disclosed.

A white paper on Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx4) forty years later

Ursini F.;Bosello Travain V.;Cozza G.;Miotto G.;Roveri A.;Toppo S.;Maiorino M.
2022

Abstract

The purification of a protein inhibiting lipid peroxidation led to the discovery of the selenoperoxidase GPx4 forty years ago. Thus, the evidence of the enzymatic activity was reached after identifying the biological effect and unambiguously defined the relationship between the biological function and the enzymatic activity. In the syllogism where GPx4 inhibits lipid peroxidation and its inhibition is lethal, cell death is operated by lipid peroxidation. Based on this rationale, this form of cell death emerged as regulated iron-enforced oxygen toxicity and was named ferroptosis in 2012. In the last decades, we learned that reduction of lipid hydroperoxides is indispensable and, in cooperation with prooxidant systems, controls the critical steady state of lipid peroxidation. This concept defined the GPx4 reaction as both the target for possible anti-cancer therapy and if insufficient, as cause of degenerative diseases. We know the reaction mechanism, but the details of the interaction at the membrane cytosol interface are still poorly defined. We know the gene structure, but the knowledge about expression control is still limited. The same holds true for post-transcriptional modifications. Reverse genetics indicate that GPx4 has a role in inflammation, immunity, and differentiation, but the observations emerging from these studies need a more specifically addressed biochemical evidence. Finally, the role of GPx4 in spermatogenesis disclosed an area unconnected to lipid peroxidation. In its mitochondrial and nuclear form, the peroxidase catalyzes the oxidation of protein thiols in two specific aspects of sperm maturation: stabilization of the mid-piece and chromatin compaction. Thus, although available evidence converges to the notion that GPx4 activity is vital due to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, it is reasonable to foresee other unknown aspects of the GPx4 reaction to be disclosed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3454547
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