A growing number of scientific papers focus on the description and quantification of the detrimental effects of pollution exposure on human health. The respiratory system is one of the main targets of these effects and children are potentially a vulnerable population. Many studies analyzed the effects of short- and long-term exposure to air pollutants on children's respiratory function. Aim of the present narrative review is to summarize the results of the available cohort studies which investigated how lung function of children and adolescents is affected by exposure to air pollution. In addition, an overview is provided on the association, in children, between pollution exposure and exhaled breath biomarkers, as possible indicators of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in pollution-related lung damages. The identified cohort studies suggest that, beside the possible impact of recent exposure, early and lifetime exposure are the variables most consistently associated with a reduction in lung function parameters in both children and adolescents. As for the effect of air pollution exposure on exhaled breath biomarkers, the available studies show an association with increased exhaled nitric oxide, with increased concentrations of malondialdehyde and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and with EBC acidification. These studies, therefore, suggest lung inflammation and oxidative stress as possible pathogenetic mechanisms involved in pollution related lung damages. Taken together, the available data underscore the importance of the development and application of policies aimed at reducing air pollutant concentration, since the protection of children's lung function can have a beneficial impact on adults' respiratory health in the future.

Impact of air pollution exposure on lung function and exhaled breath biomarkers in children and adolescents

Carraro, Silvia
;
Ferraro, Valentina Agnese;Zanconato, Stefania
2022

Abstract

A growing number of scientific papers focus on the description and quantification of the detrimental effects of pollution exposure on human health. The respiratory system is one of the main targets of these effects and children are potentially a vulnerable population. Many studies analyzed the effects of short- and long-term exposure to air pollutants on children's respiratory function. Aim of the present narrative review is to summarize the results of the available cohort studies which investigated how lung function of children and adolescents is affected by exposure to air pollution. In addition, an overview is provided on the association, in children, between pollution exposure and exhaled breath biomarkers, as possible indicators of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in pollution-related lung damages. The identified cohort studies suggest that, beside the possible impact of recent exposure, early and lifetime exposure are the variables most consistently associated with a reduction in lung function parameters in both children and adolescents. As for the effect of air pollution exposure on exhaled breath biomarkers, the available studies show an association with increased exhaled nitric oxide, with increased concentrations of malondialdehyde and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and with EBC acidification. These studies, therefore, suggest lung inflammation and oxidative stress as possible pathogenetic mechanisms involved in pollution related lung damages. Taken together, the available data underscore the importance of the development and application of policies aimed at reducing air pollutant concentration, since the protection of children's lung function can have a beneficial impact on adults' respiratory health in the future.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3455312
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact