The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal changes in adolescents with childhood-onset, long-lasting type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Patients and healthy controls (HC) underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-angiography (OCTA). Individual macular layers, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), and vascular parameters (vessel area density (VAD), vessel length fraction (VLF) and vessel diameter index (VDI)) of macular superficial vascular (SVP), intermediate (ICP), deep (DCP) and radial peripapillary capillary plexuses (RPCP) were quantified. Thirty-nine patients (5 with (DR group) and 34 without (noDR group) diabetic retinopathy) and 20 HC were enrolled. The pRNFL and ganglion cell layer (GCL) were thicker in noDR compared to HC and DR, reaching statistically significant values versus HC for some sectors. At the macular level, VAD and VLF were reduced in DR versus HC in all plexuses, and versus noDR in SVP (p < 0.005 for all). At the RPCP level, VAD and VDI were increased in noDR versus HC, significantly for VDI (p = 0.0067). Glycemic indices correlated to retinal parameters. In conclusion, in T1D adolescents, retinal capillary and neuronal changes are present after long-lasting disease, even in the absence of clinical DR. These changes modify when clinical retinopathy develops. The precocious identification of specific OCT and OCTA changes may be a hallmark of subsequent overt retinopathy.

Retinal Microvascular and Neuronal Changes Are Also Present, Even If Differently, in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes without Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy

Pilotto, Elisabetta
;
Torresin, Tommaso;Leonardi, Francesca;Gutierrez De Rubalcava Doblas, Joaquin;Midena, Giulia;Moretti, Carlo;Midena, Edoardo
2022

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal changes in adolescents with childhood-onset, long-lasting type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Patients and healthy controls (HC) underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-angiography (OCTA). Individual macular layers, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), and vascular parameters (vessel area density (VAD), vessel length fraction (VLF) and vessel diameter index (VDI)) of macular superficial vascular (SVP), intermediate (ICP), deep (DCP) and radial peripapillary capillary plexuses (RPCP) were quantified. Thirty-nine patients (5 with (DR group) and 34 without (noDR group) diabetic retinopathy) and 20 HC were enrolled. The pRNFL and ganglion cell layer (GCL) were thicker in noDR compared to HC and DR, reaching statistically significant values versus HC for some sectors. At the macular level, VAD and VLF were reduced in DR versus HC in all plexuses, and versus noDR in SVP (p < 0.005 for all). At the RPCP level, VAD and VDI were increased in noDR versus HC, significantly for VDI (p = 0.0067). Glycemic indices correlated to retinal parameters. In conclusion, in T1D adolescents, retinal capillary and neuronal changes are present after long-lasting disease, even in the absence of clinical DR. These changes modify when clinical retinopathy develops. The precocious identification of specific OCT and OCTA changes may be a hallmark of subsequent overt retinopathy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3458235
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