In the last decades, many nanovectors were developed for different diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. However, most nanosystems have been designed using a “bottom-up” approach, in which the basic components of the nanovector become assembled to achieve complex and specific behaviors. Despite the fine control of formulative conditions, the complexity of these systems often results cumbersome and difficult to scale-up. Recently, biomimetic materials emerged as a complementary or alternative design approach through a “top-down strategy”, using cell-derived materials as building blocks to formulate innovative nanovectors. The use of cell membranes as nanoparticle coatings endows nanomaterials with the biological identity and some of the functions of the cells they are derived from. In this review, we discuss some of the latest examples of membrane coated and membrane-derived biomimetic nanomaterials and underline the common general functions offered by the biomaterials used. From these examples, we suggest a systematic classification of these biomimetic materials based on their biological sources and formulation techniques, with their respective advantages and disadvantages, and summarize the current technologies used for membranes isolation and integration on nanovectors. We also discuss some current technical limitations and hint to future direction of the improvement for biomimetics.

Latest Advances in Biomimetic Cell Membrane-Coated and Membrane-Derived Nanovectors for Biomedical Applications

Rampado R.;Caliceti P.;Agostini M.
2022

Abstract

In the last decades, many nanovectors were developed for different diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. However, most nanosystems have been designed using a “bottom-up” approach, in which the basic components of the nanovector become assembled to achieve complex and specific behaviors. Despite the fine control of formulative conditions, the complexity of these systems often results cumbersome and difficult to scale-up. Recently, biomimetic materials emerged as a complementary or alternative design approach through a “top-down strategy”, using cell-derived materials as building blocks to formulate innovative nanovectors. The use of cell membranes as nanoparticle coatings endows nanomaterials with the biological identity and some of the functions of the cells they are derived from. In this review, we discuss some of the latest examples of membrane coated and membrane-derived biomimetic nanomaterials and underline the common general functions offered by the biomaterials used. From these examples, we suggest a systematic classification of these biomimetic materials based on their biological sources and formulation techniques, with their respective advantages and disadvantages, and summarize the current technologies used for membranes isolation and integration on nanovectors. We also discuss some current technical limitations and hint to future direction of the improvement for biomimetics.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3459587
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