The versatility of reactions catalyzed by pyridoxal 5 '-phosphate (PLP) enzymes is largely due to the chemistry of their extraordinary catalyst. PLP is necessary for many reactions involving amino acids. Reaction specificity is controlled by the orientation of the external aldimine intermediate that is formed upon addition of the amino acidic substrate to the coenzyme. The breakage of a specific bond of the external aldimine gives rise to a carbanionic intermediate. From this point, the different reaction pathways diverge leading to multiple activities: transamination, decarboxylation, racemization, elimination, and synthesis. A significant novelty appeared approximately 30 years ago when it was reported that some PLP-dependent decarboxylases are able to consume molecular oxygen transforming an amino acid into a carbonyl compound. These side paracatalytic reactions could be particularly relevant for human health, also considering that some of these enzymes are responsible for the synthesis of important neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, and serotonin, whose dysregulation under oxidative conditions could have important implications in neurodegenerative states. However, the reactivity of PLP enzymes with dioxygen is not confined to mammals/animals. In fact, some plant PLP decarboxylases have been reported to catalyze oxidative reactions producing carbonyl compounds. Moreover, other recent reports revealed the existence of new oxidase activities catalyzed by new PLP enzymes, MppP, RohP, Ind4, CcbF, PvdN, Cap15, and CuaB. These PLP enzymes belong to the bacterial and fungal kingdoms and are present in organisms synthesizing bioactive compounds. These new PLP activities are not paracatalytic and could only scratch the surface on a wider and unexpected catalytic capability of PLP enzymes.

Oxygen reactivity with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes: biochemical implications and functional relevance

Rossignoli, Giada;
2020

Abstract

The versatility of reactions catalyzed by pyridoxal 5 '-phosphate (PLP) enzymes is largely due to the chemistry of their extraordinary catalyst. PLP is necessary for many reactions involving amino acids. Reaction specificity is controlled by the orientation of the external aldimine intermediate that is formed upon addition of the amino acidic substrate to the coenzyme. The breakage of a specific bond of the external aldimine gives rise to a carbanionic intermediate. From this point, the different reaction pathways diverge leading to multiple activities: transamination, decarboxylation, racemization, elimination, and synthesis. A significant novelty appeared approximately 30 years ago when it was reported that some PLP-dependent decarboxylases are able to consume molecular oxygen transforming an amino acid into a carbonyl compound. These side paracatalytic reactions could be particularly relevant for human health, also considering that some of these enzymes are responsible for the synthesis of important neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, and serotonin, whose dysregulation under oxidative conditions could have important implications in neurodegenerative states. However, the reactivity of PLP enzymes with dioxygen is not confined to mammals/animals. In fact, some plant PLP decarboxylases have been reported to catalyze oxidative reactions producing carbonyl compounds. Moreover, other recent reports revealed the existence of new oxidase activities catalyzed by new PLP enzymes, MppP, RohP, Ind4, CcbF, PvdN, Cap15, and CuaB. These PLP enzymes belong to the bacterial and fungal kingdoms and are present in organisms synthesizing bioactive compounds. These new PLP activities are not paracatalytic and could only scratch the surface on a wider and unexpected catalytic capability of PLP enzymes.
2020
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3470252
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