AADC deficiency is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzyme responsible for the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin. Here, following a biochemical approach together with an in silico bioinformatic analysis, we present a structural and functional characterization of 13 new variants of AADC. The amino acid substitutions are spread over the entire protein from the N-terminal (V60A), to its loop1 (H70Y and F77L), to the large domain (G96R) and its various motifs, i.e. loop2 (A110E), or a core beta-barrel either on the surface (P210L, F251S and E283A) or in a more hydrophobic milieu (L222P, F237S and W267R) or loop3 (L353P), and to the C-terminal domain (R453C). Results show that the beta-barrel variants exhibit a low solubility and those belonging to the surface tend to aggregate in their apo form, leading to the identification of a new enzymatic phenotype for AADC deficiency. Moreover, five variants of residues belonging to the large interface of AADC (V60A, G96R, A110E, L353P and R453C) are characterized by a decreased catalytic efficiency. The remaining ones (H70Y and F77L) present features typical of apo-to-holo impaired transition. Thus, defects in catalysis or in the acquirement of the correct holo structure are due not only to specific local domain effects but also to long-range effects at either the protein surface or the subunit interface. Altogether, the new characterized enzymatic phenotypes represent a further step in the elucidation of the molecular basis for the disease.

New variants of AADC deficiency expand the knowledge of enzymatic phenotypes

Rossignoli, Giada;
2020

Abstract

AADC deficiency is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzyme responsible for the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin. Here, following a biochemical approach together with an in silico bioinformatic analysis, we present a structural and functional characterization of 13 new variants of AADC. The amino acid substitutions are spread over the entire protein from the N-terminal (V60A), to its loop1 (H70Y and F77L), to the large domain (G96R) and its various motifs, i.e. loop2 (A110E), or a core beta-barrel either on the surface (P210L, F251S and E283A) or in a more hydrophobic milieu (L222P, F237S and W267R) or loop3 (L353P), and to the C-terminal domain (R453C). Results show that the beta-barrel variants exhibit a low solubility and those belonging to the surface tend to aggregate in their apo form, leading to the identification of a new enzymatic phenotype for AADC deficiency. Moreover, five variants of residues belonging to the large interface of AADC (V60A, G96R, A110E, L353P and R453C) are characterized by a decreased catalytic efficiency. The remaining ones (H70Y and F77L) present features typical of apo-to-holo impaired transition. Thus, defects in catalysis or in the acquirement of the correct holo structure are due not only to specific local domain effects but also to long-range effects at either the protein surface or the subunit interface. Altogether, the new characterized enzymatic phenotypes represent a further step in the elucidation of the molecular basis for the disease.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3470257
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