Background: Pronation ameliorates oxygenation in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); the effect in neonates with ARDS or other types of respiratory failure is unknown. We aimed to verify if pronation has similar respiratory and haemodynamic effects in three common types of neonatal respiratory failure. Methods: Prospective, physiologic, crossover, quasi-randomised, controlled cohort study performed in a tertiary academic neonatal intensive care unit. We enrolled neonates with: 1) recovering respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, mild restrictive pattern); 2) neonatal ARDS (NARDS, severe restrictive pattern); or 3) evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), that is chronic pulmonary insufficiency of prematurity (mixed restrictive/obstructive pattern). Neonates with other lung disorders, malformations or haemodynamic impairment were excluded. Patients were started prone or supine and then shifted to the alternate position for 6h; measurements were performed after 30' of "wash out" from the positioning and at the end of 6h period. Primary outcomes were respiratory (PtcCO2, modified ventilatory index, PtcO2/FiO2, SpO2/FiO2, oxygenation index, ultrasound-assessed lung aeration) and haemodynamic (perfusion index, heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output) parameters. Findings: Between May 1st, 2019, and May 31st, 2021, 161 participants were enrolled in this study, and included in the final analysis. Pronation improved gas exchange and lung aeration (p always <0.01) and these effects were overturned in the alternate position, except for lung aeration in NARDS where the improvement persisted. The effects were greater in patients recovering from RDS than in those with evolving BPD than in those with NARDS, in this order (p always <0.01). Pronation produced a net recruitment as lung ultrasound score decreased in patients shifted from supine (16.9 (standard deviation: 5.8)) to prone (14.1 (standard deviation: 3.3), p < 0.01) and this reduction correlated with oxygenation improvement. Haemodynamic parameters remained within normal ranges. Interpretation: 6h-pronation can be used to improve gas exchange and lung aeration in neonates with recovering RDS, evolving BPD or NARDS without relevant haemodynamic effects. Funding: None.

Respiratory and haemodynamic effects of 6h-pronation in neonates recovering from respiratory distress syndrome, or affected by acute respiratory distress syndrome or evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a prospective, physiological, crossover, controlled cohort study

Vedovelli, Luca;
2023

Abstract

Background: Pronation ameliorates oxygenation in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); the effect in neonates with ARDS or other types of respiratory failure is unknown. We aimed to verify if pronation has similar respiratory and haemodynamic effects in three common types of neonatal respiratory failure. Methods: Prospective, physiologic, crossover, quasi-randomised, controlled cohort study performed in a tertiary academic neonatal intensive care unit. We enrolled neonates with: 1) recovering respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, mild restrictive pattern); 2) neonatal ARDS (NARDS, severe restrictive pattern); or 3) evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), that is chronic pulmonary insufficiency of prematurity (mixed restrictive/obstructive pattern). Neonates with other lung disorders, malformations or haemodynamic impairment were excluded. Patients were started prone or supine and then shifted to the alternate position for 6h; measurements were performed after 30' of "wash out" from the positioning and at the end of 6h period. Primary outcomes were respiratory (PtcCO2, modified ventilatory index, PtcO2/FiO2, SpO2/FiO2, oxygenation index, ultrasound-assessed lung aeration) and haemodynamic (perfusion index, heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output) parameters. Findings: Between May 1st, 2019, and May 31st, 2021, 161 participants were enrolled in this study, and included in the final analysis. Pronation improved gas exchange and lung aeration (p always <0.01) and these effects were overturned in the alternate position, except for lung aeration in NARDS where the improvement persisted. The effects were greater in patients recovering from RDS than in those with evolving BPD than in those with NARDS, in this order (p always <0.01). Pronation produced a net recruitment as lung ultrasound score decreased in patients shifted from supine (16.9 (standard deviation: 5.8)) to prone (14.1 (standard deviation: 3.3), p < 0.01) and this reduction correlated with oxygenation improvement. Haemodynamic parameters remained within normal ranges. Interpretation: 6h-pronation can be used to improve gas exchange and lung aeration in neonates with recovering RDS, evolving BPD or NARDS without relevant haemodynamic effects. Funding: None.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3470387
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