: More and more very low birth weight (VLBW) infants around the world survive nowadays, with consequently larger numbers of children developing prematurity-related morbidities, especially bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD is a multifactorial disease and its rising incidence in recent years means that general pediatricians are much more likely to encounter a child born extremely preterm, possibly with BPD, in their clinical practice. Short- and long-term sequelae in VLBW patients may affect not only pulmonary function (principally characterized by an obstructive pattern), but also other aspect including the neurological (neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders), the sensorial (earing and visual impairment), the cardiological (systemic and pulmonary hypertension, reduced exercise tolerance and ischemic heart disease in adult age), nutritional (feeding difficulties and nutritional deficits), and auxological (extrauterine growth restriction). For the most premature infants at least, a multidisciplinary follow-up is warranted after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit in order to optimize their respiratory and neurocognitive potential, and prevent respiratory infections, nutritional deficiencies or cardiovascular impairments.  Conclusion: The aim of this review is to summarize the main characteristics of preterm and BPD infants, providing the general pediatrician with practical information regarding these patients' multidisciplinary complex follow-up. We explore the current evidence on respiratory outcomes and their management that actually does not have a definitive available option. We also discuss the available investigations, treatments, and strategies for prevention and prophylaxis to improve the non-respiratory outcomes and the quality of life for these children and their families, a critical aspect not always considered. This comprehensive approach, added to the increased needs of a VLBW subjects, is obviously related to very high health-related costs that should be beared in mind. What is Known: • Every day, a general pediatrician is more likely to encounter a former very low birth weight infant. • Very low birth weight and prematurity are frequently related not only with worse respiratory outcomes, but also with neurological, sensorial, cardiovascular, renal, and nutritional issues. What is New: • This review provides to the general pediatrician a comprehensive approach for the follow-up of former premature very low birth weight children, with information to improve the quality of life of this special population.

Prematurity and BPD: what general pediatricians should know

Bonadies, Luca;Cavicchiolo, Maria Elena;Priante, Elena;Moschino, Laura;Baraldi, Eugenio
2023

Abstract

: More and more very low birth weight (VLBW) infants around the world survive nowadays, with consequently larger numbers of children developing prematurity-related morbidities, especially bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD is a multifactorial disease and its rising incidence in recent years means that general pediatricians are much more likely to encounter a child born extremely preterm, possibly with BPD, in their clinical practice. Short- and long-term sequelae in VLBW patients may affect not only pulmonary function (principally characterized by an obstructive pattern), but also other aspect including the neurological (neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders), the sensorial (earing and visual impairment), the cardiological (systemic and pulmonary hypertension, reduced exercise tolerance and ischemic heart disease in adult age), nutritional (feeding difficulties and nutritional deficits), and auxological (extrauterine growth restriction). For the most premature infants at least, a multidisciplinary follow-up is warranted after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit in order to optimize their respiratory and neurocognitive potential, and prevent respiratory infections, nutritional deficiencies or cardiovascular impairments.  Conclusion: The aim of this review is to summarize the main characteristics of preterm and BPD infants, providing the general pediatrician with practical information regarding these patients' multidisciplinary complex follow-up. We explore the current evidence on respiratory outcomes and their management that actually does not have a definitive available option. We also discuss the available investigations, treatments, and strategies for prevention and prophylaxis to improve the non-respiratory outcomes and the quality of life for these children and their families, a critical aspect not always considered. This comprehensive approach, added to the increased needs of a VLBW subjects, is obviously related to very high health-related costs that should be beared in mind. What is Known: • Every day, a general pediatrician is more likely to encounter a former very low birth weight infant. • Very low birth weight and prematurity are frequently related not only with worse respiratory outcomes, but also with neurological, sensorial, cardiovascular, renal, and nutritional issues. What is New: • This review provides to the general pediatrician a comprehensive approach for the follow-up of former premature very low birth weight children, with information to improve the quality of life of this special population.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3470515
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