Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating gastrointestinal emergency in preterm neonates. Research on early predictive biomarkers is fundamental. This is a systematic review of studies applying untargeted metabolomics and gut microbiota analysis to evaluate the differences between neonates affected by NEC (Bell's stage II or III), and/or by spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) versus healthy controls. Five studies applying metabolomics (43 cases, 95 preterm controls) and 20 applying gut microbiota analysis (254 cases, 651 preterm controls, 22 term controls) were selected. Metabolomic studies utilized NMR spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. An early urinary alanine/histidine ratio >4 showed good sensitivity and predictive value for NEC in one study. Samples collected in proximity to NEC diagnosis demonstrated variable pathways potentially related to NEC. In studies applying untargeted gut microbiota analysis, the sequencing of the V3-V4 or V3 to V5 regions of the 16S rRNA was the most used technique. At phylum level, NEC specimens were characterized by increased relative abundance of Proteobacteria compared to controls. At genus level, pre-NEC samples were characterized by a lack or decreased abundance of Bifidobacterium. Finally, at the species level Bacteroides dorei, Clostridium perfringens and perfringens-like strains dominated early NEC specimens, whereas Clostridium butyricum, neonatale and Propionibacterium acnei those at disease diagnosis. Six studies found a lower Shannon diversity index in cases than controls. A clear separation of cases from controls emerged based on UniFrac metrics in five out of seven studies. Importantly, no studies compared NEC versus SIP. Untargeted metabolomics and gut microbiota analysis are interrelated strategies to investigate NEC pathophysiology and identify potential biomarkers. Expression of quantitative measurements, data sharing via biorepositories and validation studies are fundamental to guarantee consistent comparison of results.

The Metabolome and the Gut Microbiota for the Prediction of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation: A Systematic Review

Moschino, Laura;Duci, Miriam;Guiducci, Silvia;Stocchero, Matteo;Giordano, Giuseppe;Fascetti Leon, Francesco;Baraldi, Eugenio
2022

Abstract

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating gastrointestinal emergency in preterm neonates. Research on early predictive biomarkers is fundamental. This is a systematic review of studies applying untargeted metabolomics and gut microbiota analysis to evaluate the differences between neonates affected by NEC (Bell's stage II or III), and/or by spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) versus healthy controls. Five studies applying metabolomics (43 cases, 95 preterm controls) and 20 applying gut microbiota analysis (254 cases, 651 preterm controls, 22 term controls) were selected. Metabolomic studies utilized NMR spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. An early urinary alanine/histidine ratio >4 showed good sensitivity and predictive value for NEC in one study. Samples collected in proximity to NEC diagnosis demonstrated variable pathways potentially related to NEC. In studies applying untargeted gut microbiota analysis, the sequencing of the V3-V4 or V3 to V5 regions of the 16S rRNA was the most used technique. At phylum level, NEC specimens were characterized by increased relative abundance of Proteobacteria compared to controls. At genus level, pre-NEC samples were characterized by a lack or decreased abundance of Bifidobacterium. Finally, at the species level Bacteroides dorei, Clostridium perfringens and perfringens-like strains dominated early NEC specimens, whereas Clostridium butyricum, neonatale and Propionibacterium acnei those at disease diagnosis. Six studies found a lower Shannon diversity index in cases than controls. A clear separation of cases from controls emerged based on UniFrac metrics in five out of seven studies. Importantly, no studies compared NEC versus SIP. Untargeted metabolomics and gut microbiota analysis are interrelated strategies to investigate NEC pathophysiology and identify potential biomarkers. Expression of quantitative measurements, data sharing via biorepositories and validation studies are fundamental to guarantee consistent comparison of results.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3472168
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