Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are materials that release or absorb sufficient latent heat at a constant temperature or a relatively narrow temperature range during their solid/liquid transformation to be used for heating or cooling purposes. Although the use of PCMs has increased significantly in recent years, their major applications are limited to Latent Heat Storage (LHS) applications, especially in solar energy systems and buildings. PCMs can be classified according to their composition, working temperature and application. Metallic PCMs appear to be the best alternative to salts and organic materials due to their high conductivity, high latent heat storage capacity and wide-ranging phase change temperature, i.e., melting temperature and chemical compatibility with their containers. This paper reviews the latest achievements in the field of low-melting point metallic PCMs (LMPM-PCMs), i.e., those with melting temperatures of less than 420 degrees C, based on Zn, Ga, Bi, In and Sn. Pure LMPM-PCMs, alloy LMPM-PCMs and Miscibility Gap Alloy (MGA) LMPM-PCMs are considered. Criteria for the selection of PCMs and their containers are evaluated. The physical properties and chemical stability of metallic PCMs, as well as their applications, are listed, and new application potentials are presented or suggested. In particular, the novel application of metallic PCMs in casting design is demonstrated and suggested.
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