Ovarian cancer (OC) has the highest mortality rate of all gynecological malignancies due to the high prevalence of advanced stages of diagnosis and the high rate of recurrence. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of OC tumors contributes to the rapid development of resistance to conventional chemotherapy. In recent years, in order to overcome these problems, targeted therapies have been introduced in various types of tumors, including gynecological cancer. However, the lack of predictive biomarkers showing different clinical benefits limits the effectiveness of these therapies. This requires the development of preclinical models that can replicate the histological and molecular characteristics of OC subtypes. In this scenario, organoids become an important preclinical model for personalized medicine. In fact, patient-derived organoids (PDO) recapture tumor heterogeneity with the possibility of performing drug screening. However, to best reproduce the patient's characteristics, it is necessary to develop a specific extracellular matrix (ECM) and introduce a tumor microenvironment (TME), which both represent an actual object of study to improve drug screening, particularly when used in targeted therapy and immunotherapy to guide therapeutic decisions. In this review, we summarize the current state of the art for the screening of PDOs, ECM, TME, and drugs in the setting of OC, as well as discussing the clinical implications and future perspectives for the research of OC organoids.

Patient Derived Organoids (PDOs), Extracellular Matrix (ECM), Tumor Microenvironment (TME) and Drug Screening: State of the Art and Clinical Implications of Ovarian Cancer Organoids in the Era of Precision Medicine

Spagnol, Giulia;Sensi, Francesca;Noventa, Marco;Agostini, Marco;Tozzi, Roberto;Saccardi, Carlo
2023

Abstract

Ovarian cancer (OC) has the highest mortality rate of all gynecological malignancies due to the high prevalence of advanced stages of diagnosis and the high rate of recurrence. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of OC tumors contributes to the rapid development of resistance to conventional chemotherapy. In recent years, in order to overcome these problems, targeted therapies have been introduced in various types of tumors, including gynecological cancer. However, the lack of predictive biomarkers showing different clinical benefits limits the effectiveness of these therapies. This requires the development of preclinical models that can replicate the histological and molecular characteristics of OC subtypes. In this scenario, organoids become an important preclinical model for personalized medicine. In fact, patient-derived organoids (PDO) recapture tumor heterogeneity with the possibility of performing drug screening. However, to best reproduce the patient's characteristics, it is necessary to develop a specific extracellular matrix (ECM) and introduce a tumor microenvironment (TME), which both represent an actual object of study to improve drug screening, particularly when used in targeted therapy and immunotherapy to guide therapeutic decisions. In this review, we summarize the current state of the art for the screening of PDOs, ECM, TME, and drugs in the setting of OC, as well as discussing the clinical implications and future perspectives for the research of OC organoids.
2023
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
cancers-15-02059.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Published (publisher's version)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 1.18 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.18 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3478027
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 4
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 4
social impact