Purpose: The clinical and hormonal overlap between neoplastic (CS) and non-neoplastic (NNH/pCS) hypercortisolism is a challenge. Various dynamic tests have been proposed to allow an early discrimination between these conditions, but to date there is no agreement on which of them should be used. Aim: To provide an overview of the available tests and to obtain a quantitative synthesis of their diagnostic performance in discriminating NNH/pCS from CS. Methods: The included articles, published between 1990 and 2022, applied one or more second line tests to differentiate NNH/pCS from CS patients. For the NNH/pCS group, we admitted the inclusion of patients presenting clinical features and/or biochemical findings suggestive of hypercortisolism despite apparent lack of a pCS-related condition. Results: The electronic search identified 339 articles. After references analysis and study selection, we identified 9 studies on combined dexamethasone-corticotropin releasing hormone (Dex-CRH) test, 4 on Desmopressin test and 3 on CRH test; no study on Dex-Desmopressin met the inclusion criteria. Dex-CRH test provided the highest sensitivity (97%, 95 CI% [88%; 99%]). CRH tests showed excellent specificity (99%, 95% CI [0%; 100%]), with low sensitivity. Although metaregression analysis based on diagnostic odds ratio failed to provide a gold standard, CRH test (64.77, 95% CI [0.15; 27,174.73]) seemed to lack in performance compared to the others (Dex-CRH 138.83, 95% CI [49.38; 390.32] and Desmopressin 110.44, 95% CI [32.13; 379.63]). Discussion: Both Dex-CRH and Desmopressin tests can be valid tools in helping discrimination between NNH/pCS and CS. Further studies are needed on this topic, possibly focusing on mild Cushing's Disease and well-characterized NNH/pCS patients. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022359774 , identifier CRD42022359774.

Second-line tests in the differential diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic hypercortisolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mondin A.;Barbot M.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Voltan G.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Tizianel I.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Boscaro M.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Scaroni C.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Ceccato F.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2023

Abstract

Purpose: The clinical and hormonal overlap between neoplastic (CS) and non-neoplastic (NNH/pCS) hypercortisolism is a challenge. Various dynamic tests have been proposed to allow an early discrimination between these conditions, but to date there is no agreement on which of them should be used. Aim: To provide an overview of the available tests and to obtain a quantitative synthesis of their diagnostic performance in discriminating NNH/pCS from CS. Methods: The included articles, published between 1990 and 2022, applied one or more second line tests to differentiate NNH/pCS from CS patients. For the NNH/pCS group, we admitted the inclusion of patients presenting clinical features and/or biochemical findings suggestive of hypercortisolism despite apparent lack of a pCS-related condition. Results: The electronic search identified 339 articles. After references analysis and study selection, we identified 9 studies on combined dexamethasone-corticotropin releasing hormone (Dex-CRH) test, 4 on Desmopressin test and 3 on CRH test; no study on Dex-Desmopressin met the inclusion criteria. Dex-CRH test provided the highest sensitivity (97%, 95 CI% [88%; 99%]). CRH tests showed excellent specificity (99%, 95% CI [0%; 100%]), with low sensitivity. Although metaregression analysis based on diagnostic odds ratio failed to provide a gold standard, CRH test (64.77, 95% CI [0.15; 27,174.73]) seemed to lack in performance compared to the others (Dex-CRH 138.83, 95% CI [49.38; 390.32] and Desmopressin 110.44, 95% CI [32.13; 379.63]). Discussion: Both Dex-CRH and Desmopressin tests can be valid tools in helping discrimination between NNH/pCS and CS. Further studies are needed on this topic, possibly focusing on mild Cushing's Disease and well-characterized NNH/pCS patients. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022359774 , identifier CRD42022359774.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3478431
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