Introduction COVID-19 features changed with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 in adults. This study aims to describe COVID-19 symptoms in children and adolescents during the Parental, Delta, and Omicron erasMethods A single-centre, prospective observational study was conducted on individuals aged 0-20 years attending the University Hospital of Padua (Italy) from April 2020 to December 2022. COVID-19 cases were defined by positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection and/or serology; patient/family symptoms and virological positivity were considered to determine the infection onset. Variables were summarized and compared using appropriate tests of descriptive statisticsResults A total of 509 cases [46% female, median age eight years (IQR: 4-12)] were studied. Three-hundred-eighty-seven (76%), 52 (10%), and 70 (14%) subjects experienced COVID-19 during the Parental, Delta, and Omicron waves, respectively. All subjects developed an asymptomatic/mild COVID-19. Overall, the most frequent symptoms were fever (47%) and rhinitis (21%), which showed a significant increasing incidence from the Parental to Omicron waves (p < 0.001). Conversely, diarrhea was most common during the pre-Omicron eras (p = 0.03). Stratifying symptoms according to the age group, fever, rhinitis, and skin rashes were observed more frequently among infants/toddlers; conversely, fatigue was more common in children older than five years. The duration of symptoms was similar across different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs); conversely, the number of symptoms varied according to the age group (p < 0.0001)Discussion This study showed differences in COVID-19 clinical presentation among infants, children, and adolescents and confirmed Omicron infection is more likely to be associated with upper respiratory symptoms. However, further population-based studies are needed to support these findings. In addition, active surveillance will play a crucial role in assessing the disease severity of future VOCs.

Clinical features of COVID-19 in Italian outpatient children and adolescents during Parental, Delta, and Omicron waves: a prospective, observational, cohort study

Di Chiara, Costanza
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Costenaro, Paola
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Liberati, Cecilia
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Zin, Annachiara
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Padoan, Andrea
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Donà, Daniele
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Giaquinto, Carlo
Membro del Collaboration Group
2023

Abstract

Introduction COVID-19 features changed with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 in adults. This study aims to describe COVID-19 symptoms in children and adolescents during the Parental, Delta, and Omicron erasMethods A single-centre, prospective observational study was conducted on individuals aged 0-20 years attending the University Hospital of Padua (Italy) from April 2020 to December 2022. COVID-19 cases were defined by positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection and/or serology; patient/family symptoms and virological positivity were considered to determine the infection onset. Variables were summarized and compared using appropriate tests of descriptive statisticsResults A total of 509 cases [46% female, median age eight years (IQR: 4-12)] were studied. Three-hundred-eighty-seven (76%), 52 (10%), and 70 (14%) subjects experienced COVID-19 during the Parental, Delta, and Omicron waves, respectively. All subjects developed an asymptomatic/mild COVID-19. Overall, the most frequent symptoms were fever (47%) and rhinitis (21%), which showed a significant increasing incidence from the Parental to Omicron waves (p < 0.001). Conversely, diarrhea was most common during the pre-Omicron eras (p = 0.03). Stratifying symptoms according to the age group, fever, rhinitis, and skin rashes were observed more frequently among infants/toddlers; conversely, fatigue was more common in children older than five years. The duration of symptoms was similar across different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs); conversely, the number of symptoms varied according to the age group (p < 0.0001)Discussion This study showed differences in COVID-19 clinical presentation among infants, children, and adolescents and confirmed Omicron infection is more likely to be associated with upper respiratory symptoms. However, further population-based studies are needed to support these findings. In addition, active surveillance will play a crucial role in assessing the disease severity of future VOCs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3495985
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