Purpose: Historically, patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) who fail to achieve remission at the end of induction (EOI) have had poor long-term survival. The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of contemporary therapy, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first remission (CR1). Methods: Induction failure (IF) was defined as the persistence of at least 5% bone marrow (BM) lymphoblasts and/or extramedullary disease after 4-6 weeks of induction chemotherapy. Disease features and clinical outcomes were reported in 325 of 6,167 (5%) patients age 21 years and younger treated in 14 cooperative study groups between 2000 and 2018. Results: With a median follow-up period of 6.4 years (range, 0.3-17.9 years), the 10-year overall survival (OS) was 54.7% (SE = 2.9), which is significantly higher than the 27.6% (SE = 2.9) observed in the historical cohort from 1985 to 2000. There was no significant impact of sex, age, white blood cell count, central nervous system disease status, T-cell maturity, or BM disease burden at EOI on OS. Postinduction complete remission (CR) was achieved in 93% of patients with 10-year OS of 59.6% (SE = 3.1%) and disease-free survival (DFS) of 56.3% (SE = 3.1%). Among the patients who achieved CR, 72% underwent HSCT and their 10-year DFS (with a 190-day landmark) was significantly better than nontransplanted patients (63.8% [SE = 3.6] v 45.5% [SE = 7.1]; P = .005), with OS of 66.2% (SE = 3.6) versus 50.8% (SE = 6.8); P = .10, respectively. Conclusion: Outcomes for patients age 21 years and younger with T-ALL and IF have improved in the contemporary treatment era with a DFS benefit among those undergoing HSCT in CR1. However, outcomes still lag considerably behind those who achieve remission at EOI, warranting investigation of new treatment approaches.

Outcome for Children and Young Adults With T-Cell ALL and Induction Failure in Contemporary Trials

Buldini, Barbara;
2023

Abstract

Purpose: Historically, patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) who fail to achieve remission at the end of induction (EOI) have had poor long-term survival. The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of contemporary therapy, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first remission (CR1). Methods: Induction failure (IF) was defined as the persistence of at least 5% bone marrow (BM) lymphoblasts and/or extramedullary disease after 4-6 weeks of induction chemotherapy. Disease features and clinical outcomes were reported in 325 of 6,167 (5%) patients age 21 years and younger treated in 14 cooperative study groups between 2000 and 2018. Results: With a median follow-up period of 6.4 years (range, 0.3-17.9 years), the 10-year overall survival (OS) was 54.7% (SE = 2.9), which is significantly higher than the 27.6% (SE = 2.9) observed in the historical cohort from 1985 to 2000. There was no significant impact of sex, age, white blood cell count, central nervous system disease status, T-cell maturity, or BM disease burden at EOI on OS. Postinduction complete remission (CR) was achieved in 93% of patients with 10-year OS of 59.6% (SE = 3.1%) and disease-free survival (DFS) of 56.3% (SE = 3.1%). Among the patients who achieved CR, 72% underwent HSCT and their 10-year DFS (with a 190-day landmark) was significantly better than nontransplanted patients (63.8% [SE = 3.6] v 45.5% [SE = 7.1]; P = .005), with OS of 66.2% (SE = 3.6) versus 50.8% (SE = 6.8); P = .10, respectively. Conclusion: Outcomes for patients age 21 years and younger with T-ALL and IF have improved in the contemporary treatment era with a DFS benefit among those undergoing HSCT in CR1. However, outcomes still lag considerably behind those who achieve remission at EOI, warranting investigation of new treatment approaches.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3496644
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