Astronauts returning from space missions often exhibit health issues mirroring age-related conditions, suggesting spaceflight as a potential driver of biological ageing and age-related diseases. To unravel the underlying mechanisms of these conditions, this comprehensive review explores the impact of the space “exposome” on the twelve hallmarks of ageing. Through a meticulous analysis encompassing both space environments and terrestrial analogs, we aim to decipher how different conditions influence ageing hallmarks. Utilizing PubMed, we identified 189 studies and 60 meet screening criteria. Research on biological ageing in space has focused on genomic instability, chronic inflammation, and deregulated nutrient sensing. Spaceflight consistently induces genomic instability, linked to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation, triggers pro-inflammatory and immune alterations, resembling conditions in isolated simulations. Nutrient sensing pathways reveal increased systemic insulin-like growth-factor-1. Microbiome studies indicate imbalances favoring opportunistic species during spaceflight. Telomere dynamics present intriguing patterns, with lengthening during missions and rapid shortening upon return. Despite a pro-ageing trend, some protective mechanisms emerge. Countermeasures, encompassing dietary adjustments, prebiotics, postbiotics, symbiotics, tailored exercises, meditation, and anti-inflammatory supplements, exhibit potential. Spaceflight's impact on ageing is intricate, with diverse findings challenging established beliefs. Multidisciplinary studies provide guidance for future research in this field.

Cosmic chronometers: Is spaceflight a catalyst for biological ageing?

Campisi, Manuela;Cannella, Luana;Pavanello, Sofia
Supervision
2024

Abstract

Astronauts returning from space missions often exhibit health issues mirroring age-related conditions, suggesting spaceflight as a potential driver of biological ageing and age-related diseases. To unravel the underlying mechanisms of these conditions, this comprehensive review explores the impact of the space “exposome” on the twelve hallmarks of ageing. Through a meticulous analysis encompassing both space environments and terrestrial analogs, we aim to decipher how different conditions influence ageing hallmarks. Utilizing PubMed, we identified 189 studies and 60 meet screening criteria. Research on biological ageing in space has focused on genomic instability, chronic inflammation, and deregulated nutrient sensing. Spaceflight consistently induces genomic instability, linked to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation, triggers pro-inflammatory and immune alterations, resembling conditions in isolated simulations. Nutrient sensing pathways reveal increased systemic insulin-like growth-factor-1. Microbiome studies indicate imbalances favoring opportunistic species during spaceflight. Telomere dynamics present intriguing patterns, with lengthening during missions and rapid shortening upon return. Despite a pro-ageing trend, some protective mechanisms emerge. Countermeasures, encompassing dietary adjustments, prebiotics, postbiotics, symbiotics, tailored exercises, meditation, and anti-inflammatory supplements, exhibit potential. Spaceflight's impact on ageing is intricate, with diverse findings challenging established beliefs. Multidisciplinary studies provide guidance for future research in this field.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3512121
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