One of the requirements of Heating and current drive Neutral Beam injectors for ITER is a beam homogeneity greater than 90%, to achieve an optimal beam transmission while keeping the heat load consistently low on the acceleration electrodes. The large size and complexity of ITER negative ion source play a key role in determining the homogeneity of the negative ion current of each of the 1280 beamlets and their divergence, and it is studied in the full-scale prototype source SPIDER. In this work the plasma properties are studied by spectroscopic and electrostatic measurements in the drivers, where the plasma is generated, and in the expansion region, where the plasma drifts and negative ions are produced, and they are correlated with the properties of the beam. The non-homogeneous plasma density profile is related to the non-homogeneous availability of negative ions along the beam vertical profile, with and without cesium evaporation. Visible tomography, a technique capable of characterizing isolated beamlet properties, is used to study the beam's dependence on plasma uniformity along the entire beam profile. Using these tools, it has been demonstrated how an increase in plasma density is linked to an improvement in beam homogeneity. The latter has been directly correlated with plasma homogeneity. The magnetic filter field and biases of the plasma grid and bias plate are responsible for the variation in plasma density and its homogeneity. Non-uniformities in the plasma's top/bottom and left/right distributions have been studied and partially addressed experimentally. The first issue was resolved by adjusting the radio-frequency power supplied to the plasma in different vertical regions, while the second issue was addressed by reversing the direction of the magnetic filter field and increasing the plasma density.

Correlation of source parameters and beam properties in the early operation of the full size ITER negative ion beam source

Ugoletti, M.;Poggi, C.;Sartori, E.;Zaniol, B.
2024

Abstract

One of the requirements of Heating and current drive Neutral Beam injectors for ITER is a beam homogeneity greater than 90%, to achieve an optimal beam transmission while keeping the heat load consistently low on the acceleration electrodes. The large size and complexity of ITER negative ion source play a key role in determining the homogeneity of the negative ion current of each of the 1280 beamlets and their divergence, and it is studied in the full-scale prototype source SPIDER. In this work the plasma properties are studied by spectroscopic and electrostatic measurements in the drivers, where the plasma is generated, and in the expansion region, where the plasma drifts and negative ions are produced, and they are correlated with the properties of the beam. The non-homogeneous plasma density profile is related to the non-homogeneous availability of negative ions along the beam vertical profile, with and without cesium evaporation. Visible tomography, a technique capable of characterizing isolated beamlet properties, is used to study the beam's dependence on plasma uniformity along the entire beam profile. Using these tools, it has been demonstrated how an increase in plasma density is linked to an improvement in beam homogeneity. The latter has been directly correlated with plasma homogeneity. The magnetic filter field and biases of the plasma grid and bias plate are responsible for the variation in plasma density and its homogeneity. Non-uniformities in the plasma's top/bottom and left/right distributions have been studied and partially addressed experimentally. The first issue was resolved by adjusting the radio-frequency power supplied to the plasma in different vertical regions, while the second issue was addressed by reversing the direction of the magnetic filter field and increasing the plasma density.
2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3513817
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