In this study, solid samples of hemoglobin and hemocyanin have been prepared by embedding the proteins into a saccharose-based matrix. These materials have been developed specifically for specimens for X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The preservation of protein conformation and active site organization was tested, making comparisons between the solid and the corresponding liquid samples, using resonance Raman, infra red, fluorescence and XAS. The XAS spectra of irradiated solid and liquid samples were then compared, and the preservation of biological activity of the proteins during both preparation procedure and X-ray irradiation was assessed. In all cases, the measurements clearly demonstrate that protein solid samples are both structurally and functionally quite well preserved, much better than those in the liquid state. The saccharose matrix provides an excellent protection against X-ray damages, allowing for longer exposure to the X-ray beam. Moreover, the demonstrated long-term stability of samples permits their preparation and storage in optimal conditions, allowing for the repetition of data collection with the same sample in several experimental sessions. The very high protein concentration that can be reached results in a significantly better signal-to-noise ratio, particularly useful for high molecular weight proteins with a low metal-to-protein ratio. On the bases of the above-mentioned results, we propose the new method as a standard procedure for the preparation of biological samples to be used for XAS spectroscopy.

Saccharose solid matrix embedded proteins:a new method for sample preparation for X-ray absorption spectroscopy

BUBACCO, LUIGI;SALVATO, BENEDETTO
2000

Abstract

In this study, solid samples of hemoglobin and hemocyanin have been prepared by embedding the proteins into a saccharose-based matrix. These materials have been developed specifically for specimens for X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The preservation of protein conformation and active site organization was tested, making comparisons between the solid and the corresponding liquid samples, using resonance Raman, infra red, fluorescence and XAS. The XAS spectra of irradiated solid and liquid samples were then compared, and the preservation of biological activity of the proteins during both preparation procedure and X-ray irradiation was assessed. In all cases, the measurements clearly demonstrate that protein solid samples are both structurally and functionally quite well preserved, much better than those in the liquid state. The saccharose matrix provides an excellent protection against X-ray damages, allowing for longer exposure to the X-ray beam. Moreover, the demonstrated long-term stability of samples permits their preparation and storage in optimal conditions, allowing for the repetition of data collection with the same sample in several experimental sessions. The very high protein concentration that can be reached results in a significantly better signal-to-noise ratio, particularly useful for high molecular weight proteins with a low metal-to-protein ratio. On the bases of the above-mentioned results, we propose the new method as a standard procedure for the preparation of biological samples to be used for XAS spectroscopy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/1482883
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