OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia is the main determinant of long-term diabetic complications, mainly through induction of oxidative stress. NAD(P)H oxidase is a major source of glucose-induced oxidative stress. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that rosiglitazone (RSG) is able to quench oxidative stress initiated by high glucose through prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase activation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intracellular ROS were measured using the fluoroprobe TEMPO-9-AC in HUVECs exposed to control (5 mmol/L) and moderately high (10 mmol/L) glucose concentrations. NAD(P)H oxidase and AMPK activities were determined by Western blot. We found that 10 mmol/L glucose increased significantly ROS production in comparison with 5 mmol/L glucose, and that this effect was completely abolished by RSG. Interestingly, inhibition of AMPK, but not PPARgamma, prevented this effect of RSG. AMPK phosphorylation by RSG was necessary for its ability to hamper NAD(P)H oxidase activation, which was indispensable for glucose-induced oxidative stress. Downstream of AMPK activation, RSG exerts antioxidative effects by inhibiting PKC. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that RSG activates AMPK which, in turn, prevents hyperactivity of NAD(P)H oxidase induced by high glucose, possibly through PKC inhibition. Therefore, RSG protects endothelial cells against glucose-induced oxidative stress with an AMPK-dependent and a PPARgamma-independent mechanism.

Rosiglitazone reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase via AMPK-dependent mechanism.

CEOLOTTO, GIULIO;PAPPARELLA, ITALIA;FRANCO, LORENZO;IORI, ELISABETTA;PAGNIN, ELISA;FADINI, GIAN PAOLO;ALBIERO, MATTIA;SEMPLICINI, ANDREA;AVOGARO, ANGELO
2007

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia is the main determinant of long-term diabetic complications, mainly through induction of oxidative stress. NAD(P)H oxidase is a major source of glucose-induced oxidative stress. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that rosiglitazone (RSG) is able to quench oxidative stress initiated by high glucose through prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase activation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intracellular ROS were measured using the fluoroprobe TEMPO-9-AC in HUVECs exposed to control (5 mmol/L) and moderately high (10 mmol/L) glucose concentrations. NAD(P)H oxidase and AMPK activities were determined by Western blot. We found that 10 mmol/L glucose increased significantly ROS production in comparison with 5 mmol/L glucose, and that this effect was completely abolished by RSG. Interestingly, inhibition of AMPK, but not PPARgamma, prevented this effect of RSG. AMPK phosphorylation by RSG was necessary for its ability to hamper NAD(P)H oxidase activation, which was indispensable for glucose-induced oxidative stress. Downstream of AMPK activation, RSG exerts antioxidative effects by inhibiting PKC. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that RSG activates AMPK which, in turn, prevents hyperactivity of NAD(P)H oxidase induced by high glucose, possibly through PKC inhibition. Therefore, RSG protects endothelial cells against glucose-induced oxidative stress with an AMPK-dependent and a PPARgamma-independent mechanism.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/2475929
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