Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) became in the last two decades a global threat to public health systems in the world. Since the antibiotic era, with the discovery of the first antibiotics that provided consistent health benefits to human medicine, the misuse and abuse of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine has accelerated the growing worldwide phenomenon of AMR. This paper presents an extensive overview of the epidemiology of AMR, with a focus on the link food producing-animals and humans and of the legal framework and policies currently implemented at EU level and globally. The ways of responding to the AMR challenges foresee an array of measures that include: designing more effective preventive measures at farm level to reduce the use of antimicrobials; development of novel antimicrobials; strenghtening of AMR surveillance system in animal and human populations; better knowledge of the ecology of resistant bacteria and resistant genes; increased awareness of stakeholders on the prudent use of antibiotics in animal productions and clinical arena and the public health and environmental consequences of AMR. Based on the global nature of AMR and considering that bacterial resistance does not recognize barriers and can spread to people and the environment, the article ends with specific recommendations structured around an holistic approach and targeted to different stakeholders.

Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global Emerging Threat to Public Health Systems

GIACCONE, VALERIO
2015

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) became in the last two decades a global threat to public health systems in the world. Since the antibiotic era, with the discovery of the first antibiotics that provided consistent health benefits to human medicine, the misuse and abuse of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine has accelerated the growing worldwide phenomenon of AMR. This paper presents an extensive overview of the epidemiology of AMR, with a focus on the link food producing-animals and humans and of the legal framework and policies currently implemented at EU level and globally. The ways of responding to the AMR challenges foresee an array of measures that include: designing more effective preventive measures at farm level to reduce the use of antimicrobials; development of novel antimicrobials; strenghtening of AMR surveillance system in animal and human populations; better knowledge of the ecology of resistant bacteria and resistant genes; increased awareness of stakeholders on the prudent use of antibiotics in animal productions and clinical arena and the public health and environmental consequences of AMR. Based on the global nature of AMR and considering that bacterial resistance does not recognize barriers and can spread to people and the environment, the article ends with specific recommendations structured around an holistic approach and targeted to different stakeholders.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3170288
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