The popularity of ground source heat pump systems for both heating and cooling has grown significantly over recent years. Ground heat exchangers are usually buried in the ground either vertically in boreholes or horizontally in trenches. Antifreeze fluids in closed-loop systems are commonly used in these plants to protect them from freezing phenomena and also to reduce the total length of the ground exchangers. In fact, the use of antifreeze fluid allows the system to work below 0 °C which implies higher temperature difference between the heat-carrier fluid and the undisturbed ground, consequently the heat flux increases and the total length of the boreholes can be reduced. This study has been set out to investigate three types of layout system: two conventional heat pumps using pure water and water-glycol respectively as the secondary fluid and an innovative heat pump with a flooded evaporator using pure water. The results demonstrated that, for conventional heat pumps with dry evaporator, the use of anti-freeze additives in mild climates is convenient only in grid-shaped borehole fields with a heating-dominant thermal load. In all other cases, the use of pure water decreases the overall operating costs. In addition, flooded evaporator heat pumps using pure water as a secondary fluid on the ground loop proved to be the most cost-effective solution.

Energy performance and cost analysis of some borehole heat exchanger configurations with different heat-carrier fluids in mild climates

EMMI, GIUSEPPE;ZARRELLA, ANGELO;DE CARLI, MICHELE;GALGARO, ANTONIO
2017

Abstract

The popularity of ground source heat pump systems for both heating and cooling has grown significantly over recent years. Ground heat exchangers are usually buried in the ground either vertically in boreholes or horizontally in trenches. Antifreeze fluids in closed-loop systems are commonly used in these plants to protect them from freezing phenomena and also to reduce the total length of the ground exchangers. In fact, the use of antifreeze fluid allows the system to work below 0 °C which implies higher temperature difference between the heat-carrier fluid and the undisturbed ground, consequently the heat flux increases and the total length of the boreholes can be reduced. This study has been set out to investigate three types of layout system: two conventional heat pumps using pure water and water-glycol respectively as the secondary fluid and an innovative heat pump with a flooded evaporator using pure water. The results demonstrated that, for conventional heat pumps with dry evaporator, the use of anti-freeze additives in mild climates is convenient only in grid-shaped borehole fields with a heating-dominant thermal load. In all other cases, the use of pure water decreases the overall operating costs. In addition, flooded evaporator heat pumps using pure water as a secondary fluid on the ground loop proved to be the most cost-effective solution.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3199559
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