Purpose. The purpose of this study is to develop a new pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to characterise the contribution of (S)- and (R)-warfarin to the anticoagulant effect on patients in treatment with rac-warfarin. Methods. Fifty-seven patients starting warfarin (W) therapy were studied, from the first dose and during chronic treatment at INR stabilization. Plasma concentrations of (S)- and (R)-W and INRs were measured 12, 36 and 60 h after the first dose and at steady state 12–14 h after dosing. Patients were also genotyped for the G>A VKORC1 polymorphism. The PK-PD model assumed a linear relationship between W enantiomer concentration and INR and included a scaling factor k to account for a different potency of (R)-W. Two parallel compartment chains with different transit times (MTT1 and MTT2) were used to model the delay in the Weffect. PD parameters were estimated with the maximum likelihood approach. Results. The model satisfactorily described the mean timecourse of INR, both after the initial dose and during longterm treatment. (R)-W contributed to the rac-Wanticoagulant effect with a potency of about 27% that of (S)-W. This effect was independent of VKORC1 genotype. As expected, the slope of the PK/PD linear correlation increased stepwise from GG to GA and from GA to AAVKORC1 genotype (0.71, 0.90 and 1.49, respectively). Conclusions. Our PK-PD linear model can quantify the partial pharmacodynamic activity of (R)-W in patients contemporaneously exposed to therapeutic (S)-W plasma levels. This concept may be useful in improving the performance of future algorithms aiming at identifying the most appropriateWmaintenance dose.

Assessing the relative potency of (S)- and (R)-warfarin with a new PK-PD model, in relation to VKORC1 genotypes

FERRARI, MYRIAM;PENGO, VITTORIO;BAROLO, MASSIMILIANO;BEZZO, FABRIZIO;PADRINI, ROBERTO
2017

Abstract

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to develop a new pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to characterise the contribution of (S)- and (R)-warfarin to the anticoagulant effect on patients in treatment with rac-warfarin. Methods. Fifty-seven patients starting warfarin (W) therapy were studied, from the first dose and during chronic treatment at INR stabilization. Plasma concentrations of (S)- and (R)-W and INRs were measured 12, 36 and 60 h after the first dose and at steady state 12–14 h after dosing. Patients were also genotyped for the G>A VKORC1 polymorphism. The PK-PD model assumed a linear relationship between W enantiomer concentration and INR and included a scaling factor k to account for a different potency of (R)-W. Two parallel compartment chains with different transit times (MTT1 and MTT2) were used to model the delay in the Weffect. PD parameters were estimated with the maximum likelihood approach. Results. The model satisfactorily described the mean timecourse of INR, both after the initial dose and during longterm treatment. (R)-W contributed to the rac-Wanticoagulant effect with a potency of about 27% that of (S)-W. This effect was independent of VKORC1 genotype. As expected, the slope of the PK/PD linear correlation increased stepwise from GG to GA and from GA to AAVKORC1 genotype (0.71, 0.90 and 1.49, respectively). Conclusions. Our PK-PD linear model can quantify the partial pharmacodynamic activity of (R)-W in patients contemporaneously exposed to therapeutic (S)-W plasma levels. This concept may be useful in improving the performance of future algorithms aiming at identifying the most appropriateWmaintenance dose.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3226910
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