Introduction: CK2 is a protein kinase implicated in several essential cellular processes, over-expressed in cancer and described to regulate insulin signaling cascade. Recently CK2 has been described to negatively regulate thermogenesis (Shinoda K et al, 2015, Cell Metabolism) and to inhibit insulin release (Rossi M et al, 2015, PNAS). Nevertheless, the role of CK2 in adipose tissue (AT) and its involvement in human obesity development and therapy has been poorly investigated. Methods: Our multi-disciplinary team performed biochemical analysis of signaling pathways by WB and in vitro kinase activity assays, and glucose handling studies using glucose uptake assay and IF in adipocyte cultures and glucose and insulin tolerance test in mice. Moreover we quantify CK2 expression/activity in human AT specimens of 27 obese patients, clinically characterized, in 12 obese patients underwent relevant weight loss and 11 normal-weight controls. Results: We proved that CK2 amount and activity were not influenced by insulin stimulation and that CK2 activity was efficiently inhibited by specific inhibitors, structurally unrelated. We worked with CX-4945, a CK2 inhibitor currently used in cancer clinical trials, using the minimal concentration (2.5 ƒÝM) and pre-treatment time (1hr) able to efficiently inhibit CK2 activity, avoiding any cytotoxic effect. Pharmacological inhibition of CK2 did not significantly affect in vitro adipogenic differentiation or expression profiling of mature adipocytes. Conversely, we showed that in human and murine adipocytes CK2-inhibition decreases the insulin-induced glucose uptake by counteracting Akt-signaling and GLUT4-translocation to the plasma membrane. We compared CK2 expression and activity in different mouse tissues highlighted that white skeletal muscle fibres and liver contained the highest quantity of this kinase. CK2 was expressed more in brown AT than in white AT depots. We show that CK2 promotes insulin-signaling in mouse AT, liver and skeletal muscle and that in vivo acute treatment with CX-4945 impairs glucose- tolerance in mice. Studies in tissues of ob/ob and db/db mice highlights an up-regulation of CK2 expression and activity only in WAT. CK2 hyper-activation is strongly evident also in SAT and VAT of obese patients and weight loss obtained by bariatric surgery or hypocaloric diet reverts CK2 up-regulation to normal level. Conclusion: We show that CK2 is involved in insulin sensitivity, glucose handling and remodeling of WAT. Moreover we identify CK2 hyper-activation as a hallmark of human obesity, suggesting a new potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases.

Protein kinase CK2 is involved in adipose tissue insulin signaling and remodeling during obesity and weight loss

Sanna, M.;Borgo, C.;Favaretto, F.;Salizzato, V.;Belligoli, A.;Foletto, M.;Vindigni, V.;Bardini, R.;Busetto, L.;Donella-Deana, A.;Milan, G.;Vettor, R.
2017

Abstract

Introduction: CK2 is a protein kinase implicated in several essential cellular processes, over-expressed in cancer and described to regulate insulin signaling cascade. Recently CK2 has been described to negatively regulate thermogenesis (Shinoda K et al, 2015, Cell Metabolism) and to inhibit insulin release (Rossi M et al, 2015, PNAS). Nevertheless, the role of CK2 in adipose tissue (AT) and its involvement in human obesity development and therapy has been poorly investigated. Methods: Our multi-disciplinary team performed biochemical analysis of signaling pathways by WB and in vitro kinase activity assays, and glucose handling studies using glucose uptake assay and IF in adipocyte cultures and glucose and insulin tolerance test in mice. Moreover we quantify CK2 expression/activity in human AT specimens of 27 obese patients, clinically characterized, in 12 obese patients underwent relevant weight loss and 11 normal-weight controls. Results: We proved that CK2 amount and activity were not influenced by insulin stimulation and that CK2 activity was efficiently inhibited by specific inhibitors, structurally unrelated. We worked with CX-4945, a CK2 inhibitor currently used in cancer clinical trials, using the minimal concentration (2.5 ƒÝM) and pre-treatment time (1hr) able to efficiently inhibit CK2 activity, avoiding any cytotoxic effect. Pharmacological inhibition of CK2 did not significantly affect in vitro adipogenic differentiation or expression profiling of mature adipocytes. Conversely, we showed that in human and murine adipocytes CK2-inhibition decreases the insulin-induced glucose uptake by counteracting Akt-signaling and GLUT4-translocation to the plasma membrane. We compared CK2 expression and activity in different mouse tissues highlighted that white skeletal muscle fibres and liver contained the highest quantity of this kinase. CK2 was expressed more in brown AT than in white AT depots. We show that CK2 promotes insulin-signaling in mouse AT, liver and skeletal muscle and that in vivo acute treatment with CX-4945 impairs glucose- tolerance in mice. Studies in tissues of ob/ob and db/db mice highlights an up-regulation of CK2 expression and activity only in WAT. CK2 hyper-activation is strongly evident also in SAT and VAT of obese patients and weight loss obtained by bariatric surgery or hypocaloric diet reverts CK2 up-regulation to normal level. Conclusion: We show that CK2 is involved in insulin sensitivity, glucose handling and remodeling of WAT. Moreover we identify CK2 hyper-activation as a hallmark of human obesity, suggesting a new potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3250103
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