In the second half of the eighteenth century, Schlosser and Ellis described the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri garnering the interest of scientists around the world. In the 1950's scientists began to study B. schlosseri and soon recognized it as an important model organism for the study of developmental biology and comparative immunology. In this review, we summarize the history of B. schlosseri studies and experiments performed to characterize the colony life cycle and bud development. We describe experiments performed to analyze variations in bud productivity, zooid growth and bilateral asymmetry (i.e., the situs viscerum), and discuss zooid and bud removal experiments that were used to study the cross-talk between consecutive blastogenetic generations and vascular budding. We also summarize experiments that demonstrated that the ability of two distinct colonies to fuse or reject is controlled by a single polymorphic gene locus (BHF) with multiple, codominantly expressed alleles. Finally, we describe how the ability to fuse and create chimeras was used to show that within a chimera somatic and germline stem cells compete to populate niches and regenerate tissue or germline organs. Starting from the results of these 60 years of study, we can now use new technological advances to expand the study of B. schlosseri traits and understand functional relationships between its genome and life history phenotypes.

Sixty years of experimental studies on the blastogenesis of the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri

Lucia Manni
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Chiara Anselmi
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Francesca Cima
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Fabio Gasparini
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
PERONATO, ANNA
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Paolo Burighel
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Giovanna Zaniolo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Loriano Ballarin
Membro del Collaboration Group
2019

Abstract

In the second half of the eighteenth century, Schlosser and Ellis described the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri garnering the interest of scientists around the world. In the 1950's scientists began to study B. schlosseri and soon recognized it as an important model organism for the study of developmental biology and comparative immunology. In this review, we summarize the history of B. schlosseri studies and experiments performed to characterize the colony life cycle and bud development. We describe experiments performed to analyze variations in bud productivity, zooid growth and bilateral asymmetry (i.e., the situs viscerum), and discuss zooid and bud removal experiments that were used to study the cross-talk between consecutive blastogenetic generations and vascular budding. We also summarize experiments that demonstrated that the ability of two distinct colonies to fuse or reject is controlled by a single polymorphic gene locus (BHF) with multiple, codominantly expressed alleles. Finally, we describe how the ability to fuse and create chimeras was used to show that within a chimera somatic and germline stem cells compete to populate niches and regenerate tissue or germline organs. Starting from the results of these 60 years of study, we can now use new technological advances to expand the study of B. schlosseri traits and understand functional relationships between its genome and life history phenotypes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3277092
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