Surgery for esophageal cancer is a highly stressful and painful procedure, and a significant amount of analgesics may be required to eliminate perioperative pain and blunt the stress response to surgery. Proper management of postoperative pain has invariably been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and accelerate recovery. Neuraxial analgesic techniques after major thoracic and upper abdominal surgery have long been established to reduce respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and neurohormonal complications. The aim of this review is to evaluate and discuss the relevant clinical benefits and outcome, as well as the possibilities and limits of thoracic epidural anesthesia/analgesia (TEA) in the setting of esophageal resections. A comprehensive search of original articles was conducted investigating relevant literature on MEDLINE, Cochrane reviews, Google Scholar, PubMed, and EMBASE from 1985 to July2017. The relationship between TEA and important endpoints such as the quality of postoperative pain control, postoperative respiratory complications, surgical stress-induced immunosuppression, the overall postoperative morbidity, length of hospital stay, and major outcomes has been explored and reported. TEA has proven to enable patients to mobilize faster, cooperate comfortably with respiratory physiotherapists and achieve satisfactory postoperative lung functions more rapidly. The superior analgesia provided by thoracic epidurals compared to that from parenteral opioids may decrease the incidence of ineffective cough, atelectasis and pulmonary infections, while the associated sympathetic block has been shown to enhance bowel blood flow, prevent reductions in gastric conduit perfusion, and reduce the duration of ileus. Epidural anesthesia/analgesia is still commonly used for major 'open' esophageal surgery, and the recognized advantages in this setting are soundly established, in particular as regards the early recovery from anesthesia, the quality of postoperative pain control, and the significantly shorter duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation. However, this technique requires specific technical skills for an optimal conduction and is not devoid of risks, complications, and failures.

Perioperative benefit and outcome of thoracic epidural in esophageal surgery: a clinical review

Feltracco, P.
;
SERRA, ENRICO;Merigliano, S.;Ori, C.
2018

Abstract

Surgery for esophageal cancer is a highly stressful and painful procedure, and a significant amount of analgesics may be required to eliminate perioperative pain and blunt the stress response to surgery. Proper management of postoperative pain has invariably been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and accelerate recovery. Neuraxial analgesic techniques after major thoracic and upper abdominal surgery have long been established to reduce respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and neurohormonal complications. The aim of this review is to evaluate and discuss the relevant clinical benefits and outcome, as well as the possibilities and limits of thoracic epidural anesthesia/analgesia (TEA) in the setting of esophageal resections. A comprehensive search of original articles was conducted investigating relevant literature on MEDLINE, Cochrane reviews, Google Scholar, PubMed, and EMBASE from 1985 to July2017. The relationship between TEA and important endpoints such as the quality of postoperative pain control, postoperative respiratory complications, surgical stress-induced immunosuppression, the overall postoperative morbidity, length of hospital stay, and major outcomes has been explored and reported. TEA has proven to enable patients to mobilize faster, cooperate comfortably with respiratory physiotherapists and achieve satisfactory postoperative lung functions more rapidly. The superior analgesia provided by thoracic epidurals compared to that from parenteral opioids may decrease the incidence of ineffective cough, atelectasis and pulmonary infections, while the associated sympathetic block has been shown to enhance bowel blood flow, prevent reductions in gastric conduit perfusion, and reduce the duration of ileus. Epidural anesthesia/analgesia is still commonly used for major 'open' esophageal surgery, and the recognized advantages in this setting are soundly established, in particular as regards the early recovery from anesthesia, the quality of postoperative pain control, and the significantly shorter duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation. However, this technique requires specific technical skills for an optimal conduction and is not devoid of risks, complications, and failures.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3291332
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