Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) has emerged as a potential threat for swine industry, being consistently reported in presence of several clinical signs all around the world. Recently, its presence in wild boar has been demonstrated at high prevalence. This evidence is surprising since the lower density of wild populations might not be expected to sustain such efficient viral transmission. Porcine circoviruses were proven to exhibit a certain plasticity in the host tropism and were detected in unrelated species, like mice, dogs and ruminants. However, if this scenario applies also to wild animals remains to be established. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of PCV-3 in wild ungulates other than wild boar and in related hematophagous ectoparasites. One-hundred and nine animals were sampled from different hilly and mountain areas of Friuli Venezia Giulia, including 9 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 17 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 4 mouflons (Ovis musimon), 50 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 29 wild boars (Sus scrofa). Additionally, host matched ectoparasites were collected when present. PCV-3 was diagnosed using molecular techniques and sequencing. The present study results confirmed the high PCV-3 occurrence in wild boar and reported for the first time its presence, at low prevalence, in chamois and roe deer. Moreover two ticks (Ixodes ricinus), one of which non-engorged, collected from PCV-3 negative roe deer, tested PCV-3 positive. The genetic characterization of some of the strains collected from non-swine hosts allowed to prove that, albeit clearly part of PCV-3 species, they were genetically unique, demonstrating the absence of among-samples contamination and thus confirming the actual presence of PCV-3 genome in these new hosts. Therefore, the present study highlights an unexpected broad PCV-3 distribution and circulation in the wild, rising further questions on porcine circoviruses infectious cycle, epidemiology and origin, which will deserve additional investigations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

A wild Circ-ulation: High presence of Porcine circovirus 3 in different mammalian wild hosts and ticks

Franzo, Giovanni
Formal Analysis
;
Grassi, Laura;Tucciarone, Claudia Maria
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Drigo, Michele
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Martini, Marco
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Pasotto, Daniela
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Mondin, Alessandra
Data Curation
;
Menandro, Maria Luisa
Conceptualization
2019

Abstract

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) has emerged as a potential threat for swine industry, being consistently reported in presence of several clinical signs all around the world. Recently, its presence in wild boar has been demonstrated at high prevalence. This evidence is surprising since the lower density of wild populations might not be expected to sustain such efficient viral transmission. Porcine circoviruses were proven to exhibit a certain plasticity in the host tropism and were detected in unrelated species, like mice, dogs and ruminants. However, if this scenario applies also to wild animals remains to be established. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of PCV-3 in wild ungulates other than wild boar and in related hematophagous ectoparasites. One-hundred and nine animals were sampled from different hilly and mountain areas of Friuli Venezia Giulia, including 9 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 17 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 4 mouflons (Ovis musimon), 50 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 29 wild boars (Sus scrofa). Additionally, host matched ectoparasites were collected when present. PCV-3 was diagnosed using molecular techniques and sequencing. The present study results confirmed the high PCV-3 occurrence in wild boar and reported for the first time its presence, at low prevalence, in chamois and roe deer. Moreover two ticks (Ixodes ricinus), one of which non-engorged, collected from PCV-3 negative roe deer, tested PCV-3 positive. The genetic characterization of some of the strains collected from non-swine hosts allowed to prove that, albeit clearly part of PCV-3 species, they were genetically unique, demonstrating the absence of among-samples contamination and thus confirming the actual presence of PCV-3 genome in these new hosts. Therefore, the present study highlights an unexpected broad PCV-3 distribution and circulation in the wild, rising further questions on porcine circoviruses infectious cycle, epidemiology and origin, which will deserve additional investigations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3295563
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