BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ascites has been classified according to quantity and response to medical therapy. Despite its precise definitions, little is known about the effects of grade 1 ascites or recurrent ascites (i.e. ascites that recurs at least on 3 occasions within a 12-month period despite dietary sodium restriction and adequate diuretic dosage) on patient outcome. We studied progression of grade 1 ascites and recurrent ascites in a large cohort of outpatients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of data from 547 outpatients with cirrhosis (259 without ascites, 54 patients with grade 1 ascites, 234 with grade 2 or 3 ascites) who participated a care management program study in Italy from March 2003 through September 2017. We collected demographic, clinical, and laboratory data and patients were evaluated at least every 6 months. Patients received abdominal ultrasound analysis at study inclusion and at least twice a year. Number and volume of paracentesis were collected, when available. Patients were followed until death, liver transplantation, or March 2018. The median follow-up time was 29 months. Primary outcomes were mortality and development of complications of cirrhosis. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in 60-month transplant-free survival between patients with grade 1 vs grade 2 or 3 ascites (36% vs 43%) but survival was significantly lower when both groups were compared with patients without ascites (68%; P <.001 for both comparisons). However, the grade of systemic inflammation and the rate of complications were significantly greater in patients with grade 1 ascites than in patients without ascites, but significantly lower than in patients with grade 2 or 3 ascites. Development of grade 2 or 3 ascites did not differ significantly between patients with no ascites vs grade 1 ascites (10% vs 14%). There was no significant difference in 36-month transplant-free survival between patients with ascites responsive to medical treatment vs recurrent ascites (78% vs 62%), whereas patients with refractory ascites had significantly lower survival than patients with responsive or recurrent ascites (23%; responsive vs refractory ascites P<.001; recurrent vs refractory ascites P=.022). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from a large cohort of outpatients with cirrhosis, we found that grade 1 ascites is associated with systemic inflammation, more complications, and increased mortality compared with no ascites. Mortality does not differ significantly between patients with recurrent ascites vs ascites responsive to medical treatment.

Outcomes and Mortality of Grade 1 Ascites and Recurrent Ascites in Patients With Cirrhosis

Marta, Tonon;Salvatore, Piano;Gabriele, Gambino Carmine;Antonietta, Romano;Chiara, Pilutti;Simone, Incicco;Alessandra, Brocca;Antonietta, Sticca;Massimo, Bolognesi;Paolo, Angeli
2021

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ascites has been classified according to quantity and response to medical therapy. Despite its precise definitions, little is known about the effects of grade 1 ascites or recurrent ascites (i.e. ascites that recurs at least on 3 occasions within a 12-month period despite dietary sodium restriction and adequate diuretic dosage) on patient outcome. We studied progression of grade 1 ascites and recurrent ascites in a large cohort of outpatients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of data from 547 outpatients with cirrhosis (259 without ascites, 54 patients with grade 1 ascites, 234 with grade 2 or 3 ascites) who participated a care management program study in Italy from March 2003 through September 2017. We collected demographic, clinical, and laboratory data and patients were evaluated at least every 6 months. Patients received abdominal ultrasound analysis at study inclusion and at least twice a year. Number and volume of paracentesis were collected, when available. Patients were followed until death, liver transplantation, or March 2018. The median follow-up time was 29 months. Primary outcomes were mortality and development of complications of cirrhosis. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in 60-month transplant-free survival between patients with grade 1 vs grade 2 or 3 ascites (36% vs 43%) but survival was significantly lower when both groups were compared with patients without ascites (68%; P <.001 for both comparisons). However, the grade of systemic inflammation and the rate of complications were significantly greater in patients with grade 1 ascites than in patients without ascites, but significantly lower than in patients with grade 2 or 3 ascites. Development of grade 2 or 3 ascites did not differ significantly between patients with no ascites vs grade 1 ascites (10% vs 14%). There was no significant difference in 36-month transplant-free survival between patients with ascites responsive to medical treatment vs recurrent ascites (78% vs 62%), whereas patients with refractory ascites had significantly lower survival than patients with responsive or recurrent ascites (23%; responsive vs refractory ascites P<.001; recurrent vs refractory ascites P=.022). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from a large cohort of outpatients with cirrhosis, we found that grade 1 ascites is associated with systemic inflammation, more complications, and increased mortality compared with no ascites. Mortality does not differ significantly between patients with recurrent ascites vs ascites responsive to medical treatment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3336114
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