Several risk factors are associated with a worse outcome for COVID-19 patients; the most recognized are demographic characteristics such as older age and male gender, and pre-existing cardiovascular conditions. About the latter, hypertension and coronary heart disease are among the most common comorbidities recorded in infected patients, together with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data from Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS, Italy) show that more than 68.3% of patients had hypertension, 28.2% ischemic heart disease, 22.5% atrial fibrillation, while 30.1% T2DM. Several authors suggested that cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus are linked to endothelial dysfunction, and all of them are strictly related to aging. Considering the impact of the gender on the COVID-19 epidemic, even if confirmed cases from each nation are changing every day, epidemiological data clearly evidence that in men the infection causes worse outcomes compared to women. In Italy, up to 21 May, in the age range of 60–89 years, male deaths were 63.9% of total cases. The reason behind this difference between genders appears not clear; however, the diversity in sex-hormones and styles of life are believed to play a role in the patient's susceptibility to severe SARS-CoV-2 outcomes. It is known that the activation of endothelial estrogen receptors increases NO and decreases ROS, protecting the vascular system from angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction, inflammation, and ROS production. During the pandemic, joining forces is vital; thus, as people help doctors by limiting their displacements out of their houses avoiding hence the spread of the infection, doctors help patients to overcome severe SARS-CoV-2 infections by using multiple pharmacological approaches. In this context, the preservation of endothelial function and the mitigation of vascular inflammation are prominent targets, essential to reduce severe outcomes also in male older patients.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.