BackgroundMelanoma of unknown primary (MUP), accounts for up to 3% of all melanomas and consists of a histologically confirmed melanoma metastasis to either lymph nodes, (sub)cutaneous tissue, or visceral sites without any evidence of a primary cutaneous, ocular, or mucosal melanoma. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics, treatment strategies, and prognostic factors of MUP patients, in order to shed some light on the clinical behavior of this malignancy.MethodsAll the consecutive patients with a diagnosis of MUP referring to our institutions between 1985 and 2018 were considered in this retrospective cohort study. The records of 173 patients with a suspected diagnosis of MUP were retrospectively evaluated for inclusion in the study. Patient selection was performed according to the Das Gupta criteria, and a total of 127 MUP patients were finally included in the study, representing 2.7% of the patients diagnosed with melanoma skin cancer at our institutions during the same study period. A second cohort of all consecutive 417 MKP patients with AJCC stages IIIB-IV, referring tions in the period considered (1985-2018), was included in the study to compare survival between MUP and MKP patients. All the diagnoses were based on histopathologic, cytologic and immunohistochemical examination of the metastases. All tumors were re-staged according to the 2018 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8(th) Edition.ResultsMedian follow-up was 32 months (IQR: 15-84). 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 54%, while 3-year overall survival (OS) was 62%. Worse OS and PFS were associated with older age (P = 0.0001 for OS; P = 0.008 for PFS), stage IV (P < 0.0001 for OS; P = 0.0001 for PFS) and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.0001 for OS and P = 0.01 for PFS). Patients with lymph node disease showed longer PFS (P = 0.001) and OS (P = 0.0008) than those with (sub)cutis disease. Complete lymph node dissection (CLND) was the most common surgical treatment; a worse OS in these patients was associated with the number of positive lymph nodes (P = 0.01), without significant association with the number of retrieved lymph nodes (P = 0.79). Survival rates were lower in patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) and target therapy (TT), and higher in those receiving immunotherapy (IT). 417 patients with AJCC stages IIIB-IV of Melanoma Known Primary (MKP) were included for the survival comparison with MUP. 3-year PFS rates were 54 and 58% in MUP and MKP, respectively (P = 0.30); 3-year OS rates were 62 and 70% in MUP and MKP, respectively (P = 0.40).ConclusionsThe most common clinical scenario of our series was a male patient around 59 years with lymph node disease. We report that CLND associated with IT was the best treatment in terms of survival outcome. In the current era of IT and TT for melanoma, new studies have to clarify the impact of novel drugs on MUP.

Melanoma of Unknown Primary: Evaluation of the Characteristics, Treatment Strategies, Prognostic Factors in a Monocentric Retrospective Study

Rastrelli, Marco;Dall'Olmo, Luigi;Cavallin, Francesco;Cappellesso, Rocco;Vecchiato, Antonella;Buja, Alessandra;Spina, Romina;Parisi, Alessandro;Mazzarotto, Renzo;Ferrazzi, Beatrice;Grego, Andrea;Rotondi, Alessio;Benna, Clara;Tropea, Saveria;Russano, Francesco;Bassetto, Franco;Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo;Alaibac, Mauro;Rossi, Carlo Riccardo;Mocellin, Simone
2021

Abstract

BackgroundMelanoma of unknown primary (MUP), accounts for up to 3% of all melanomas and consists of a histologically confirmed melanoma metastasis to either lymph nodes, (sub)cutaneous tissue, or visceral sites without any evidence of a primary cutaneous, ocular, or mucosal melanoma. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics, treatment strategies, and prognostic factors of MUP patients, in order to shed some light on the clinical behavior of this malignancy.MethodsAll the consecutive patients with a diagnosis of MUP referring to our institutions between 1985 and 2018 were considered in this retrospective cohort study. The records of 173 patients with a suspected diagnosis of MUP were retrospectively evaluated for inclusion in the study. Patient selection was performed according to the Das Gupta criteria, and a total of 127 MUP patients were finally included in the study, representing 2.7% of the patients diagnosed with melanoma skin cancer at our institutions during the same study period. A second cohort of all consecutive 417 MKP patients with AJCC stages IIIB-IV, referring tions in the period considered (1985-2018), was included in the study to compare survival between MUP and MKP patients. All the diagnoses were based on histopathologic, cytologic and immunohistochemical examination of the metastases. All tumors were re-staged according to the 2018 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8(th) Edition.ResultsMedian follow-up was 32 months (IQR: 15-84). 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 54%, while 3-year overall survival (OS) was 62%. Worse OS and PFS were associated with older age (P = 0.0001 for OS; P = 0.008 for PFS), stage IV (P < 0.0001 for OS; P = 0.0001 for PFS) and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.0001 for OS and P = 0.01 for PFS). Patients with lymph node disease showed longer PFS (P = 0.001) and OS (P = 0.0008) than those with (sub)cutis disease. Complete lymph node dissection (CLND) was the most common surgical treatment; a worse OS in these patients was associated with the number of positive lymph nodes (P = 0.01), without significant association with the number of retrieved lymph nodes (P = 0.79). Survival rates were lower in patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) and target therapy (TT), and higher in those receiving immunotherapy (IT). 417 patients with AJCC stages IIIB-IV of Melanoma Known Primary (MKP) were included for the survival comparison with MUP. 3-year PFS rates were 54 and 58% in MUP and MKP, respectively (P = 0.30); 3-year OS rates were 62 and 70% in MUP and MKP, respectively (P = 0.40).ConclusionsThe most common clinical scenario of our series was a male patient around 59 years with lymph node disease. We report that CLND associated with IT was the best treatment in terms of survival outcome. In the current era of IT and TT for melanoma, new studies have to clarify the impact of novel drugs on MUP.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11577/3386735
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