Cardiac allograft rejection following heart transplantation is challenging to diagnose. Tissue biopsies are the gold standard in monitoring the different types of rejection. The last decade has seen an increased emphasis on identifying non-invasive methods to improve rejection diagnosis and overcome tissue biopsy invasiveness. Liquid biopsy, as an efficient non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic oncological monitoring tool, seems to be applicable in heart transplant follow-ups. Moreover, molecular techniques applied on blood can be translated to tissue samples to provide novel perspectives on tissue and reveal new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art of the new methodologies in cardiac allograft rejection monitoring and investigate the future perspectives on invasive and noninvasive rejection biomarkers identification. We reviewed literature from the most used scientific databases, such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. We extracted 192 papers and, after a selection and exclusion process, we included in the review 81 papers. The described limitations notwithstanding, this review show how molecular biology techniques and omics science could be deployed complementarily to the histopathological rejection diagnosis on tissue biopsies, thus representing an integrated approach for heart transplant patients monitoring.

A changing paradigm in heart transplantation: An integrative approach for invasive and non-invasive allograft rejection monitoring

Giarraputo A.;Barison I.;Fedrigo M.;Castellani C.;Tona F.;Gerosa G.;Angelini A.
2021

Abstract

Cardiac allograft rejection following heart transplantation is challenging to diagnose. Tissue biopsies are the gold standard in monitoring the different types of rejection. The last decade has seen an increased emphasis on identifying non-invasive methods to improve rejection diagnosis and overcome tissue biopsy invasiveness. Liquid biopsy, as an efficient non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic oncological monitoring tool, seems to be applicable in heart transplant follow-ups. Moreover, molecular techniques applied on blood can be translated to tissue samples to provide novel perspectives on tissue and reveal new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art of the new methodologies in cardiac allograft rejection monitoring and investigate the future perspectives on invasive and noninvasive rejection biomarkers identification. We reviewed literature from the most used scientific databases, such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. We extracted 192 papers and, after a selection and exclusion process, we included in the review 81 papers. The described limitations notwithstanding, this review show how molecular biology techniques and omics science could be deployed complementarily to the histopathological rejection diagnosis on tissue biopsies, thus representing an integrated approach for heart transplant patients monitoring.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11577/3387177
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